Presentation on theme: "How to cite other authors Parenthetical citation."— Presentation transcript:
How to cite other authors Parenthetical citation
Avoiding plagiarism How do you know if you are plagiarizing/What is plagiarism? You are plagiarizing if you cut-and-paste without acknowledging your source borrow an idea without acknowledging your source turn in a paper purchased online or written by a friend turn in a paper that you have already received credit for in another class
Avoiding plagiarism You can have acceptable paraphrasing when you: record the information in the original passage accurately. give credit for the ideas in this passage. indicate which part is taken directly from her source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number.
What needs to be cited? quoted material whether published, written (but not published), or spoken another person’s idea or opinion (in contrast to common knowledge) interpretations lecture notes professional presentations Interviews
Common Knowledge “bare-bone” facts from a dictionary or other basic reference books (dates, titles of principal works or studies, proper names) scientific and technical terms example of common knowledge: Pearl Harbor attack occurred on Dec 7, 1941. (“Ethics of documentation”) What does NOT need to be cited
Direct quote Use a direct quote when it completely supports and develops your thesis When it is an expert opinion whose credibility would make your case. Example: Original source: “Research at many levels, however, indicates that [students who copy are] more likely to be driven by desperation and a desire for success (or fear of failure) than by a simple desire to cheat… When a paper displays unintentional plagiarism, we have a teaching opportunity…” (Williams 350) On works cited page: Williams, Bronwyn T. Trust, betrayal, and authorship: Plagiarism and how we perceive Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51:4, p.350. (2008). Web. 11 May 2010.
Paraphrase: Restates key ideas or concepts from original source in your own words to convey an accurate summary Must be cited
Direct quote vs. paraphrase Direct quote: “Research at many levels, however, indicates that [students who copy are] more likely to be driven by desperation and a desire for success (or fear of failure) than by a simple desire to cheat… When a paper displays unintentional plagiarism, we have a teaching opportunity…” (Williams 350) Paraphrase: EX: Some professors argue that many students who plagiarize have understandable motives and present opportunities for teachers to model more ethical conduct in the classroom (Williams 350).
REMEMBER All information from sources MUST be 1) Paraphrased, summarized, or quoted AND 2) Cited in the same paragraph AND 3) Cited again in the list of references at the end of the document.
I’ve already copied and pasted my notes, Now what do I do? 1.Review notes 2.Pick out important information 3.Write in your own words a. Decide what the author is saying b. Make this point in you’re your own words c. Check against original to see if you have accurately summarized d. Cite correctly 4.Review outline—Check for ideas that are stated in author’s exact words a. Do you need to use exact wording to make point? b. Cite correctly
How do I cite (document)? 1.After typing the borrowed information type author’s name and page number in parentheses. Period after parenthesis. Example: (Morris 21). 2.If no author, type title of article Example: (“American Dream of Success” 42). 3.If no page number, type author is there is one; if not type the title of the article. Example: (“American Dream of Success”) (Morris)
Additional notes If the previous citation is from same source and there is a page number, simply cite page number (45). Periods go outside the parentheses Should have synthesis (bringing together of many sources to prove your thesis); therefore entire paragraphs should not have the same citation