2Biblical ReferenceGreat are the works of the Lord, studied by all who delight in them.Psalm 111:2
3What is Science?Science is the investigation and exploration of natural events and of new information that results from those investigations.Using reasoning, creativity, and skepticism to solve problems.People from many backgrounds, interests and talents have contributed to science over thousands of years.
4Three Branches of Science Life Science – the study of all living thingsEarth Science – the study of the Earth and the forces that shape the Earth’s surfacePhysical Science – the study of chemistry and physics
5Life ScienceStudy of all organisms and the many processes that occur in them.Questions from a Life Scientist:How do plant and animal cells differ?How do animals survive in the desert?How do viruses spread?
6Earth ScienceStudy of the processes that occur on, deep within and above the EarthQuestions from an Earth Scientist:What are the properties of minerals?How do volcanoes form?How is energy transferred?
7Physical Science Study of Matter (Chemistry) and Energy (Physics) Questions from a Physical Scientist:What happens to energy during chemical reactions?How does gravity affect roller coasters?What are protons, neutrons and electrons?
10Ask QuestionsAsking a question is often the first step in using scientific methods.Asking a question usually results from making many observations, using one of more of the five senses.
11Form a HypothesisAfter scientists ask a question, their next step is usually to form a hypothesis.A hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question.A good hypothesis is a testable idea that leads to scientific investigation.A prediction is a statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events
12Test the HypothesisAfter scientists form a hypothesis, they usually test the hypothesis to find out if it is a reasonable answer to their question.If the prediction is not confirmed, the hypothesis might need revision
13Organize and Analyze Data Analyzing results by using tables and graphs helps scientists understand relationships between the data.
14Organize and Analyze Data Scientists must determine whether inferences or conclusions can be made from the data.An inference is a logical explanation of an observation that is drawn from prior knowledge or experience.Analyzing data from repeated tests can help scientists determine if their data are accurate and reproducible.Data are reproducible when you get similar data from many tests.If the hypothesis is not supported, it may have to be modified.
15Draw ConclusionsAfter scientists analyze the results, they draw conclusions about whether their hypothesis was supported.Valid conclusions can only be obtained with reproducible data.Data are considered reproducible when scientists get similar data from many repeated tests.Reproducible data helps scientists make sure that the results of their experiment were not an accident
16Communicate the Results After drawing conclusions, scientists often communicate their results.When scientists communicate their results, it allows others to continue the investigation.Results can be communicated through scientific papers, presentations, and the Internet.
17Results of Scientific Inquiry Scientists perform scientific inquiry to find answers to questions.Who, what, when, where, why or howThe practical use of scientific knowledge, especially for industrial or commercial use is technology.
18New Materials & Technology Corporations, governments and universities spend millions of dollars to design new materials and technologies.Using the Scientific Inquiry Cycle
19New Objects & EventsNASA’s Hubble Telescope has identified several thousand new planets and galaxies.Scientists discovered bacteria in a lake 60-feet below the ice on Antarctica.Scientific research indicates that stem cells can be used to treat and cure many diseases.
20Scientific Theory and Law A scientific theory is an explanation of observations or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations.A scientific law describes a pattern or an event in nature that is always true.
22Scientific Theory and Law Critical thinking is comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whether you agree with it.
23Scientific Theory and Law To prevent bias in an investigation, sampling, repetition, and blind studies can be helpful.Bias: Intentional or unintentional prejudice towards a certain outcome.Sampling: A small, random representation of the whole populationRepetition: Experiments are conducted multiple times to ensure the results are valid.Blind Studies: The investigator, subject or both do not know which sample they are testing.
24Scientific Theory and Law Questions about personal opinions, values, beliefs, and feelings cannot be answered scientifically.Scientists follow safety procedures when they conduct investigations.Ethics are especially important when using living things during investigations
25Pop Quiz Which is the study of chemistry and physics? A. biology B. Earth scienceC. life scienceD. physical science
26Pop QuizWhich term refers to a statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events?A. hypothesisB. inferenceC. predictionD. observation
27Pop QuizWhich refers to comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whether you agree with it?A. critical thinkingB. inferenceC. observationD. scientific law