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8 th GRADE PHYSICS Matter, Forces, Energy, Motion and Heat.

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Presentation on theme: "8 th GRADE PHYSICS Matter, Forces, Energy, Motion and Heat."— Presentation transcript:

1 8 th GRADE PHYSICS Matter, Forces, Energy, Motion and Heat

2 SECTION 1: MATTER

3 Important Terms Chemistry- The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes. Substance- A single kind of matter that is pure and has a specific set of properties. Mixture-Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined. Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogeneous

4 DESCRIBING MATTER Question: What is matter? Answer: Anything that has mass and takes up space All matter is composed of atoms Atom- The basic particle from which all elements are made Element- A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.

5 Chemical Bond- The force that holds two atoms together Molecule- A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together Compound- A pure substance made of two or more different elements chemically combined chemical formula- A formula that gives the elements in a compound and the ratio of atoms Example: H 2 OC 6 H 4 O 2 Fe 5

6 COMPOUNDS VS. MOLECULES

7 Matter has both physical and chemical properties

8 Properties of Matter Physical Property Examples physical property- A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance Color Size Shape Mass Density Volume Texture Chemical Property Examples chemical property- A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance Reactivity pH (is it an acid or a base) Flammability Toxicity Oxidation states Heat of combustion

9 MEASURING MATTER Tools of Measurement: Mass: scale or triple beam balance Length: ruler Volume: For a regular shaped object use the formula LxWxH For a irregularly shaped object use water displacement Density D=M/V

10 Density of a regular shaped object This block of wood has the following measurements L= 10cm W= 2cm H= 5cm Mass= 50 g In your notebook, calculate the volume, then find the density. Remember to label the units

11 Density of an irregularly shaped object Toy Dinosaur Mass= 2mg Volume= volume with object- volume without object V=5.8mL-4.8mL= 1mL What is the density or the toy dinosaur? D=M/V D=2mg/1mL = 2mg/mL NOTE: 1mL=1cm 3

12 CHANGES IN MATTER Matter can undergo physical and chemical changes Physical Change- A change in a substance that does not change its identity Examples: changing shape, form, state of matter Chemical Change- A change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances Examples: burning, oxidation, combustion, tarnishing, electrolysis

13 Chemical Changes

14 Physical Changes

15 ENERGY

16 ENERGY IN MATTER Key Terms: Kinetic Energy- The energy of matter in motion Potential Energy- The energy an object has because of its position; also the internal stored energy of an object, such as energy stored in chemical bonds

17 Forms of Energy Chemical Energy- A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms Electromagnetic Energy- A form of energy that travels through space as waves Electrical Energy- The energy of electrically charged particles moving from one place to another.

18 Energy Transformations

19 WORK

20 SPEED, ACCELERATION, and VELOCITY

21 THERMAL ENERGY (HEAT)


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