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Chapter 2 Note-Packet Introduction to Matter. Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Note-Packet Introduction to Matter. Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Note-Packet Introduction to Matter

2 Section 1

3 Anything that has mass and takes up space Matter The study of properties of matter and how matter changes Chemistry A single kind of matter that is pure Substance The same composition and properties Always has Physical properties Chemical properties Matter has two kinds of properties

4 Characteristic of a pure substance that can be seen without changing it into another substance Physical property Liquid water freezing into ice Example Characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances Chemical property Iron combines with oxygen to form rust Example Properties of Matter Can be used to classify matter

5 Pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means Element Elements are the simplest substance! The basic particle from which all elements are made Atoms A chemical bond forms- a force of attraction between the two atoms When atoms combine Group of 2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond Molecules Two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom forms water Example

6 Pure substance made of two or more different elements chemically combined in a set ratio Compounds Shows the elements in a compound and the ratio of atoms Chemical Formula C O 2 The ratio of Carbon to Oxygen is 1:2 Chemical Formula C O A different ratio equals a different compound Elements that are chemically combined have different properties from the uncombined elements

7 A mix of two or more substances that retain their own properties Mixture Contrast Compounds- The combined elements change their properties. Mixtures- The combined elements keep their properties. Mixture where you cannot see the different parts Mixture where you can see the different parts HeterogeneousHomogeneous Dissolved sugar in water Salad in a bowl A homogeneous mixture is called a solution Examples

8 Section 2

9 The measure of the force of gravity on you Weight The measure of the amount of matter in an object Mass Does not change with location The amount of space that matter occupies Volume The mass of a material in a given volume Density Volume = Length x Width x Height Liter (L), milliliter (mL) and cubic centimeter (cm 3 ) Density = Mass Volume Relates to Units Formula g / cm 3 Units Grams (g) Units

10 Section 3

11 When a substance changes, but is still the same substance after the change Physical Change When a substance changes into a new substance with properties different from the original Chemical Change Changes of state Changes of shape or form Combination of fuel with oxygen Using electricity to break down compounds Combination of substance with oxygen Combining metals with substances, producing dark coat on metal Combustion Electrolysis Oxidation Tarnishing

12 A change in matter that produces one or more new substances Chemical Reactions Chemical changes occur when bonds break and new bonds form Evidence for chemical Reactions, or changes A color change may signal that a chemical change has occurred Changes in Color A solid that forms from solution during a chemical reaction is a precipitate Precipitate may form If a chemical change occurs from liquids or solids, a gas may form A gas may form

13 The next video shows a color change, and a precipitate!

14

15 The ability to do work or cause change Energy Chemical or physical changes in matter includes a change in energy The average energy from the random motion of matter particles The total energy of all the particles in an object Temperature Thermal Energy Always flows from hot to cold Change in which energy is taken in Change in which energy is released Endothermic ChangeExothermic Change

16 Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed Matter can only be changed! All the atoms present at the start of a reaction are present at the end In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products + Iron (6 atoms)Sulfur (6 atoms)Iron Sulfide (12 atoms)

17 Section 4

18 The energy of matter in motion Kinetic Energy The energy an object has because of its position Potential Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds Chemical Energy Energy form that travels through space as waves Electromagnetic Energy Energy of electrically charged particles moving from one place to another Electric Energy Forms of Energy Chemical energy may be changed to other forms of energy. Other forms of energy may also be changed to chemical energy!

19

20 Matter Chemistry Substance Always has Matter has two kinds of properties

21 Physical property Example Chemical property Example Properties of Matter

22 Element Elements are the simplest substance! Atoms When atoms combine Molecules Example

23 CompoundsChemical Formula C O 2 C O

24 Mixture Contrast Compounds- ____________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Mixtures- _______________________ _______________________________ Heterogeneous Homogeneous Examples

25 WeightMass Volume Density Relates to Units Formula Units

26 Physical ChangeChemical Change Combustion Electrolysis Oxidation Tarnishing

27 Chemical Reactions Evidence for chemical Reactions, or changes Changes in Color Precipitate may form A gas may form

28 Energy Temperature Thermal Energy Endothermic ChangeExothermic Change

29 + __________________ __________________________

30 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Chemical Energy Electromagnetic Energy Electric Energy Forms of Energy __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________


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