2 Essential Questions:1. What is Matter?2. What are some physical properties that can be used to describe matter?3. What are some chemical properties that can be used to describe matter?2
3 What is Matter? (58-61)MATTER is anything that has mass (amount of material) and volume (amount of space taken up)not matter=energyMass is the amount of matter in an objectVolume is : the amount of space that matter takes up
4 MATTER HAS DENSITY Every substance has its own density. • Density is: the amount of matter in a given space.a) Density is calculated: Density = MassVolumeb) Density is measured with a balance (for mass)and a graduated cylinder (for volume) using the metric units g/ml or g/cm3c) Water’s density is 1g/ml or 1 g/ cm3Every substance has its own density.
5 MATTER CAN BE DESCRIBED BY ITS PROPERTIES.A. Property: a characteristic usedto describe an objectB. There are 2 Types of Properties:
6 2 types of properties1. Physical property - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance• examples: color, taste, odor, volume, mass, density, viscosity, solubility, melting point, boiling point, electrical or thermal conductivity
7 2 types of properties•Chemical properties:a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance with new properties• examples: rusting, flammable, reacts withvinegar
8 Matter can be described by its properties C. BOTH CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIESARE USED TO DESCRIBE AND IDENTIFYMATTER.D. Matter can be identified by its properties that donot change even when the amount changes.Some of these properties are: density, melting point, boiling point, and what it reacts with.*
9 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Essential Questions:What are characteristics and examples of elements?What are characteristics and examples of compounds?What are characteristics and examples of mixtures?14
10 VI. Matter can be divided into 3 main categories (62-67) A. ELEMENTSElements are pure substances made up of only one type of atom. They cannot be broken down into a simpler substance2. There are about 115 known elements,92 naturalRest are man-made
11 A. Elements cont.3. Each element has its own atomic structure and a unique set of physical and chemical properties that identify it4. The smallest particle of each element is the atom
12 B. Compounds1. Compounds – a pure substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined, in a set ratio - smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule.2. Most elements in nature are combined with other elements, most substances we use everyday are made of compounds.
13 B. Compounds cont.3. When elements are chemically combined they form compounds with properties that are DIFFERENT from the original elements4. Chemical formula - Compounds mix according to certain ratios, there is a set “recipe”Ex: water is ALWAYS 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom
14 B. Compounds cont.5. Compounds can be chemically broken down into the individual elements that form them6. Each compound has its own set of physical and chemical properties that are different from the elements that form themWater – clear liquid formed from two highly explosive gassesTable salt – white crystalline solid necessary for cellular function formed from an explosive silvery metal and a poisonous green gas
15 C. Mixtures A mixture is 2 or more substances PHYSICALLY combined Each substance keeps its original physical propertiesParts of a mixture can be separated by PHYSICAL changesSubstances in the mixture can be any amount in the mixture (no set “recipe”)
16 C. Mixtures cont. 5. Two Kinds of Mixtures a) Heterogeneous mixtures have particles big enough to see, they are not evenly mixed and some particles are big enough to separate out.b) Homogeneous mixtures look the same throughout, they are evenly mixed and do not separate on their own.
17 b. Homogenous1. Solutions: appear to be single substances but are made of at least two substances, one dissolved in the otherEx: salt dissolved in water, hydrochloric acid dissolved in water, hot chocolate mix dissolved in milk
18 1) Solutions cont.Concentrated – a lot of one substance dissolved in anotherEx. Very salty salt waterDilute – not very much of one substance dissolved in anotherEx. Not very much salt in salt water
19 matter elements compounds mixtures homogeneous heterogeneous molecules atomsmixtureshomogeneousheterogeneous
20 Changes in Matter Essential Questions: What are some physical changes matter can undergo?What are some chemical changes matter can undergo?What is the law of conservation of matter?22
21 VII. Matter can change in two ways 68-70Physical change: a change in form or appearance, but no new substance is created; most physical changes are easy to undo.Change of State – physical change, ex: solid to a liquid; liquid to a gas, etc.2. Change in form or shape – physical change, ex: dissolving salt in water, bending metal, crushing, breaking, etc.
22 2) Chemical change: a change that occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely different substances with new properties
23 Examples of changes Physical Changes: Water freezing or ice melting, Cutting hair, Sanding wood,Bending a paperclip, Crushingan aluminum canChemical Change:Souring milk, bubbling orFizzing when 2 things combine,Iron rusting, Bleach takingcolor out of something
24 Energy Essential Questions: What are some forms of energy that are related to changes in matter?How do you describe when a change in matter releases or absorbs energy?26
25 71-77Law of Conservation of Matter - Matter is not created or destroyed in any chemical or physical changeEnergy – ability to do work or cause change. Like matter, energy is never created or destroyed in chemical reactions, it can only be transformed (changed from one form to another)
26 Write in the blank space below energy: Thermal energy – total energy of all of the particles in an objectTemperature – measure of the average energy of random motion of particles of matterEndothermic change – a change in which energy is taken in. Ex: melting iceExothermic change – a change in which energy is released. Ex: combustion – heat and light are produced.
27 Chemical energy – energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms, energy stored in the foods you eat, gasoline to fuel a car, etc.Electromagnetic energy – energy that travels through space and waves. Ex: radio waves, microwave oven, etc.