Presentation on theme: "Arab/Islamic Kingdoms and Indian Ocean Trade"— Presentation transcript:
1Arab/Islamic Kingdoms and Indian Ocean Trade By: Rain Cinco, Theodora Danias, Michelle Fong, Alyssa Iglesias, Katrina Kerolus, Anumta RaheelPeriod 8Arab/Islamic Kingdoms and Indian Ocean Trade
2The Rise of Islam 7th century C.E.- Islam emerged in Arabian Peninsula Arab conquerors were able to expand the empire within one century- from N. India to Iberian PeninsulaIslam spread to three continents: Asia, Africa, and EuropeRapid expansion influenced development of trade and the exchange of ideas.Caliphates: Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid
3Islamic Trade Routes- Post Classical Era (600-1450 AD) The Islamic Empire was a center for tradebuilt an enormous and profitable trade network over land and seaMediterranean Sea to EuropeCaspian Sea and Volga River RussiaIslamic traders made it all the way to the shores of China by sailing the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.
4Trade and Transportation Overland trade:Travel mostly done by camel caravanUsed extensive road networks that were built during the classical era by India, Persia, and the Mediterranean BasinMaritime TradeBorrowed compass from ChineseBorrowed the lateen sail from Southeast Asian and Indian MarinersBorrowed Astrolabe from Hellenistic MediterraneanArab and Persian mariners sailed throughout the Indian Ocean Basin
5Islam and Medieval Europe: Political, Social, and Economical Impacts Battle of Tours in 732 AD stopped the Muslim advance into Europe and left only Spain in Muslim control.In 1096 Western Christians marched through the Byzantine Empire to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims. This conflict brought about the end of the feudal system in Western Europe.
6Islam and Medieval Europe Cont. EconomicIncreased interaction with the Islamic Empire during the Crusades led to a revival of European trade with Asia. This trade led to a rise in the economic prosperity of Western EuropeIntellectual/ArtsIncreased interaction with the Islamic Empire as a result of the Crusades opened Europeans up to new knowledge of science, medicine, and technology from the Muslims.the Europeans discovered their own past within a different region of the world Renaissance.Europeans adopted Hindi numerals from the Muslims
7Arab/Islamic Empires and China In 751 CE, the Abbasid Dynasty defeated a Chinese army at the Battle of Talas RiverThis ended expansion of Tang Dynasty into Central Asia and allowed the spread of Islam among Turkish peoplesBorrowed compass from the ChineseSilk Road trade flourishedSilk and ceramics from China
8Trans and Sub-Saharan Trade PoliticalTrade kingdoms emerged in West Africa – Ghana, Mali, & Songhay and rulers converted to Islam to gain trade advantagesEastern coastal city-states gained power as rulers converted to IslamEconomicCrossed the Sahara by camel caravan to trade salt, steel, copper, glass, and slaves from West AfricaAnimal skins from Eastern Africa
9Arab/Islamic Empires and Africa Intellectual/Arts & ReligionThe Trans-Saharan trade routes helped to spread Islam to West AfricaMali ruler Mansa Musa observed Islamic tradition by making his pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) inLocal beliefs mixed with Islamic beliefsSwahili – mix of Bantu and Arabic became widespreadArabic became the first written language in West Africa
10Muslim and Hindu Societies in South Asia Arab forces entered India as early as the mid 7th century before the establishment of the Umayyad caliphateentered South Asia via merchants and later conquered Northern territories of India and eventually spread to Southeast AsiaFew Islamic converts were won forcefully but easily converted lower castes through the ideas of equality of the believers. The Hindu social structure was more restrictive than that of the Muslims. Muslims living in India adopted many aspects of Hindu culture.
11South Asia/India and the Islamic Empires Mahmud of Ghazni, leader of the Turks in Afghanistan, led raids of India between 1001 and 1027.Mahmud demolished Hindu and Buddhist sitesBuddhism declined.Mosques or Islamic shrines were constructed on the sites where Hindu and Buddhist structures were destroyed.The Sind (Northern India) were conquered by Arab Muslims and passed to Abbasids
12Indian Ocean Trade Network The Indian Ocean Trade Network thrived as Muslim merchants traded with Indian and Chinese merchants.
13Indian Ocean Trade area of rapid Muslim expansion. Maritime trade network across the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.Maritime trade in India expanded due to the rising prosperity of Asian, European, and African states and the resulting demand for luxury goods.
14Cross-Cultural trade in the Indian Ocean Basin What did they trade?Silk and porcelain from ChinaSpices from southeast AsiaPepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from IndiaIncense and horses from Arabia and southwest AsiaGold, ivory, and slaves from east AfricaMaritime technology: Lateen sail and new ship-building techniquesDhows and junks--large ships involved in maritime trade in Indian Ocean
15Indian Ocean Trade Trade took place in three distinct regions: The South China Sea- Chinese and Malays dominated tradeFrom the east coast of India to the islands of Southeast Asia- Indians and Malays dominated trade.From the west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa- Persians and Arabs dominated trade.Increased interaction with the Islamic Empire during the Crusades led to a revival of European trade with Asia. This trade led to a rise in the economic prosperity of Western Europe.
16MonsoonsMonsoon winds changed direction at regular and predictable timesIndians were the first people to “ride” the monsoon windsSouthern monsoons brought rainfall for crops and farmingSupplement to irrigation systems
17Assessment!!To what three continents did Islam spread to (during the post-classical era)?Europe, Australia, and AsiaEurope, Africa, and CanadaEurope, Africa, and AsiaNone of the aboveCORRECT ANSWER: C
18Assessment 2) Which West African ruler performed the Hajj? Genghis KhanMansa MusaMuhammadMarco PoloCORRECT ANSWER: B
19ASSESSMENT3) True or False: Islam traded with Russia through the Volga River and Caspian Sea.CORRECT ANSWER: TRUE
20ASSESSMENT4) What were the names of the ships used in maritime trade in the Indian Ocean?CORRECT ANSWER: DHOWS AND JUNKS
21ASSESSMENT 5) True or False? Islam was dominant in southern India. Answer: False, Islam spread to the Sind sultanate in Northern India, Southern India remained predominantly Hindu.
22ASSESSMENT 6) Arab Muslims imported ______ from China Silk, only BananasSilk and ceramics (chinaware)None of the aboveCORRECT ANSWER: C
23The Islamic Empires and Indian Ocean Trade There's lots of commotion In the Indian Ocean Must be the trade The Arabs made Overland or maritime, they were both successful The Indians and Arabs were ever so fruitful