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1 14 Molecular Evolution and Population Genetics.

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1 1 14 Molecular Evolution and Population Genetics

2 2 Molecular evolution The discovery that DNA is the genetic material made it possible to compare corresponding genes even in distantly related species DNA and protein sequences contain information about evolutionary relationships among species Comparative studies of macromolecules, the study of how and why their sequences change through time constitutes molecular evolution

3 3 Accumulation of sequence differences through time is the basis of molecular systematics, which analyses them in order to infer evolutionary relationships A gene tree is a diagram of the inferred ancestral history of a group of sequences A gene tree is only an estimate of the true pattern of evolutionary relations Neighbor joining = one of the way to estimate a gene tree Bootstrapping = a common technique for assessing the reliability of a node in a gene tree Taxon = the source of each sequence Molecular evolution

4 4 Fig. 14.1

5 5 A gene tree does not necessarily coincide with a species tree: The sorting of polymorphic alleles in the different lineages Recombination within gene make it possible for different parts of the same gene to have different evolutionary histories Molecular evolution

6 6 Rate of sequence evolution = the fraction of sites that undergo a change in some designated time interval = number of replacements per site per billion years Rates of evolution can differ dramatically from one protein to another Molecular evolution

7 7 There are different kind of nucleotide sites and nucleotide substitutions depending on their position and function in the genome Synonymous substitution = no change in amino acid sequence = primarily at the third codon position Nonsynonymous substitution = amino acid replacement Rates of evolution of nucleotide sites differ according to their function Molecular evolution

8 8 Fig. 14.3

9 9 New genes usually evolve through duplication and divergence Ortologous genes = duplicated as an accompaniment to speciation, retain the same function Paralogous genes = duplicated in the genome of the same species, acquire new or more specialized function Pseudogenes = duplicated genes that have lost their function Molecular evolution

10 10 Population genetics = application of genetic principles to entire populations of organisms Population = group of organisms of the same species living in the same geographical area Subpopulation = any of the breeding groups within a population among which migration is restricted Local population = subpopulation within which most individuals find their mates Population Genetics

11 11 Population Genetics Gene pool = the complete set of genetic information in all individuals within a population Genotype frequency = proportion of individuals in a population with a specific genotype Genotype frequencies may differ from one population to another Allele frequency = proportion of any specific allele in a population Allele frequencies are estimated from genotype frequencies

12 12 Mating Systems Random mating means that mating pairs are formed independently of genotype Random mating of individuals is equivalent of the random union of gametes Assortative mating = nonrandom selection of mating partners; it is positive when like phenotypes mate more frequently than would be expected by chance and is negative when reverse occurs Inbreeding = mating between relatives

13 13 Hardy–Weinberg Principle When gametes containing either of two alleles, A or a, unite at random to form the next generation, the genotype frequencies among the zygotes are given by the ratio p 2 : 2pq : q 2 this constitutes the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) Principle p = frequency of a dominant allele A q = frequency of a recessive allele a p + q =1

14 14 Fig

15 15 Hardy–Weinberg Principle One important implication of the HW Principle is that allelic frequencies will remain constant over time if the following conditions are met: The population is sufficiently large Mating is random Allelic frequencies are the same in males and females Selection does not occur = all genotypes have equal in viability and fertility Mutation and migration are absent

16 16 Hardy–Weinberg Principle Another important implication is that for a rare allele, there are many more heterozygotes than there are homozygotes for the rare allele Fig

17 17 Hardy–Weinberg Principle HW frequencies can be extended to multiple alleles: Frequency of any homozygous genotype = square of allele frequency = p i 2 Frequency of any heterozygous genotype = 2 x product of allele frequencies = 2p i p j

18 18 Hardy–Weinberg Principle X-linked genes are a special case because males have only one X- chromosome Genotype frequencies among females: HH = p 2 ; Hh = 2pq; hh = q 2 Genotype frequencies among males are the same as allele frequencies: H = p, h = q Fig

19 19 DNA Typing The use of polymorphisms in DNA to link suspects with samples of human material is called DNA typing Highly polymorphic sequences are used in DNA typing Polymorphic alleles may differ in frequency among subpopulations = population substructure DNA exclusions are definitive

20 20 Allelic Variation Allelic variation may result from differences in the number of units repeated in tandem = simple tandem repeat (STR) STRs can be used to map DNA since they generate fragments ofdifferent sizes which can be detected by various methods Most people areheterozygous for SSR alleles

21 21 Fig

22 22 Inbreeding Inbreeding means mating between relatives Inbreeding results in an excess of homozygotes compared with random mating In most species, inbreeding is harmful due to rare recessive alleles that wouldnt otherwise become homozygous Fig. 14.9Fig

23 23 Inbreeding A convenient measure of effects of inbreeding is based on the reduction of heterozygosity H I and is called the inbreeding coefficient F F = (2pq - H I )/2pq The overall genotype frequencies in the inbreed population are p 2 (1 - F) + pF2pq(1 - F)q 2 (1 - F) + qF

24 24 Fig

25 25 Evolution Evolution refers to changes in the gene pool of a population or in the allele frequencies present in a population Evolution is possible because genetic variation exists in populations Four processes account for most of the evolutionary changes

26 26 Evolution 1. Mutation = the origin of new genetic capabilities in populations = the ultimate source of genetic variation 2. Migration = the movement of organisms among subpopulations 3. Natural selection = the process of evolutionary adaptation = genotypes best suited to survive and reproduce in a particular environment give rise to a disproportionate share of the offspring 4. Random genetic drift = the random, undirected changes in allele frequencies, especially in small populations

27 27 Natural Selection The concept of natural selection was first proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859 Natural selection is the driving force of adaptive evolution and is a consequence of the hereditary differences among organisms and their ability to survive and reproduce in the prevailing environment Adaptation = progressive genetic improvement in populations due to natural selection

28 28 Natural Selection In its modern formulation, the concept of natural selection rests on three premises: More organisms are produced than can survive and reproduce Organisms differ in their ability to survive and reproduce, and some of these differences are due to genotype The genotypes that promote survival are favored and contribute disproportionately to the offspring of the next generation

29 29 Fitness Fitness is the relative ability of genotypes to survive and reproduce Relative fitness measures the comparative contribution of each parental genotype to the pool of offspring genotypes in each generation Selection coefficient refers to selective disadvantage of a disfavored genotype

30 30 Selection in Diploids Frequency of favored dominant allele changes slowly if allele is common Frequency of favored recessive allele changes slowly if the allele is rare Rare alleles are found most frequently in heterozygotes When favored allele is dominant, recessive allele in heterozygotes is not exposed to natural selection

31 31 Fig

32 32 Selection in Diploids Frequency of very common or rare alleles changes very slowly Selection for or against very rare recessive alleles is inefficient The largest reservoir of harmful recessive alleles is in the genomes of heterozygous carriers, who are phenotypically normal

33 33 Selection in Diploids Selection can be balanced by new mutations New mutations often generate harmful alleles and prevent their elimination from the population by natural selection Eventually the population will attain a state of equilibrium in which the new mutations exactly balance the selective elimination

34 34 Heterozygote Superiority Heterozygote superiority = fitness (measurement of viability and fertility) of heterozygote is greater than that of both homozygotes When there is heterozygote superiority, neither allele can be eliminated by selection In sickle cell anemia, allele for mutant hemoglobin is maintained in high frequencies in regions of endemic malaria because heterozygotes are more resistant to to this disease

35 35 Random Genetic Drift Some changes in allele frequency are random due to genetic drift Random genetic drift comes about because populations are not infinitely large Only relatively few of the gametes participate in fertilization = sampling With random genetic drift, the probability of fixation of an allele is equal to its frequency in the original population Fig

36 36 Maternal Inheritance Maternal inheritance refers to the transmission of genes only through the female In higher animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows maternal inheritance Mitochondria are maternally inherited because the egg is the major contributor of cytoplasm to the zygote Some rare genetic disorders are the result of mutations in mtDNA and are transmitted from mother to all offspring The severity of the disorder depends on the proportions of normal and mutant mitochondria among affected individuals

37 37 Maternal Inheritance Recombination does not occur in mitochondrial DNA making it a good genetic marker for human ancestry Human mtDNA evolves at approximately a constant rate = 1 change per mt lineage every 3800 years Modern human populations originated in subsaharan Africa ~ 100,000 years ago

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