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Chem-To-Go Lesson 10 Unit 3 ANATOMY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE You might want to have a periodic table handy during the video!

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Presentation on theme: "Chem-To-Go Lesson 10 Unit 3 ANATOMY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE You might want to have a periodic table handy during the video!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chem-To-Go Lesson 10 Unit 3 ANATOMY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE You might want to have a periodic table handy during the video!

2 Dmitri Mendeleev “Father of the Periodic Table” Henry Moseley QUICK HISTORY Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number

3 Periodic Law - The periodic law states that certain chemical and physical properties repeat themselves every eight elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. PERIODIC LAW Periods = rows Columns = groups

4 MAJOR CLASSIFICATIONS Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

5 Metals Typically solid at room temperature Conduct electricity and heat Shiny Malleable Ductile Lose electrons to be stable Nonmetals Diverse in room temperature state of matter Non-conductors Brittle Non-lustrous Gain electrons to become stable PROPERTIES

6 SIX IMPORTANT GROUPS

7 TWO IMPORTANT PATTERNS Number of Valence Electrons = Column Number

8 TWO IMPORTANT PATTERNS Common Charge of the Ion Pattern

9 Chem-To-Go Lesson 11 Unit 3 ATOMIC RADIUS & IONIC RADIUS

10 TRENDS Trend = a repeating pattern Periodic Trend = a repeating pattern on the periodic table

11 ATOMIC RADIUS Definition: ½ the distance between the nuclei of two identical touching atoms

12 ATOMIC RADIUS Period trend: [row pattern]; atomic radius DECREASES from left to right across a row Group trend: [column pattern]; atomic radius DECREASES from bottom to top of a column WHY? Radius decreases across a period because the nucleus is gaining more protons to become larger and more strongly positive. The electron cloud is drawn in by forces of attraction. Radius decreases up a group because there are fewer energy levels at the top of the periodic table. PERIOD TREND GROUP TREND

13 ATOMIC RADIUS Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. Which of the following atoms will has the smallest radius? a. Tinb. Strontium c. Selenium d. Arsenic Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

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15 ATOMIC RADIUS Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 2. Which of the following atoms will has a larger radius than calcium? a.Aluminum b. Copper c. Potassiumd. None Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

16  Cation = Positively charged ion (neutral atom has lost one or more electrons)  Anion = Negatively charged ion (neutral atom has gained one or more electrons) IONS

17 IONIC RADIUS Definition: size of the ion; usually compared to the size of its neutral atom

18 CATION RADIUSANION RADIUS IONIC RADIUS Cations form by losing electrons. As electrons are lost, the ion becomes smaller. Anions form by gaining electrons. As electrons are gained, the ion becomes larger.

19 Chem-To-Go Lesson 12 Unit 3 IONIZATION ENERGY & ELECTRONEGATIVITY

20 1 ST IONIZATION ENERGY Definition: the energy required to remove a first electron from an atom

21 1 ST IONIZATION ENERGY

22 Period trend: [row pattern]; ionization energy INCREASES from left to right across a row Group trend: [column pattern]; ionization energy INCREASES from bottom to top of a column WHY? The energy needed to remove an electron increases as the nucleus becomes more strongly positive and the electrons are drawn in closer to it. The energy needed to remove an electron increases as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus. The shielding effect makes removing electrons easier from higher energy levels. PERIOD TREND GROUP TREND

23 1 ST IONIZATION ENERGY SHIELDING EFFECT OF CORE ELECTRONS The energy needed to remove an electron increases as the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus. The shielding effect makes removing electrons easier from higher energy levels.

24 1 ST IONIZATION ENERGY Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. Which of the following atoms will has the smallest ionization energy? a. Tinb. Strontium c. Selenium d. Arsenic Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

25 1 ST IONIZATION ENERGY Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 2. Which of the following atoms has a larger ionization energy than calcium? a.Aluminum b. Copper c. Potassiumd. None Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

26 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Definition: the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to draw the bonding electrons closer to itself

27 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Notice that the noble gases are NOT in the image. Since they don’t form bonds, they have no electronegativity values.

28 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Period trend: [row pattern]; electronegativity INCREASES from left to right across a row Group trend: [column pattern]; electronegativity INCREASES from bottom to top of a column WHY? The larger and more positive nuclei on the right side of the table are more likely to attract the bonding electrons An unshielded nucleus is better at attracting bonding electrons. Fewer energy levels means more electronegativity. PERIOD TREND GROUP TREND

29 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. Which of the following atoms will has the highest electronegativity? a. Tinb. Chlorine c. Neon d. Arsenic Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

30 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Memory Tool SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE: 2. Which of the following atoms will has a higher electronegativity than P? a.Oxygen b. Fluorine c. Heliumd. None Use a periodic table! Find all of the elements. Apply the trend.

31 Group trend: [column pattern]; electron affinity INCREASES from bottom to top of a column Definition: the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule to form a negative ion. Period trend: [row pattern]; electron affinity INCREASES from left to right across a row ELECTRON AFFINITY PERIOD TREND

32 ELECTRON AFFINITY Memory Tool


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