Presentation on theme: "THE PERIODIC TABLE dayah"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE PERIODIC TABLE http://www. dayah THE PERIODIC TABLE table.pngMendeleev’s Periodic Table (Figure 6.3)Arranged elements into rows and columnsElements ordered by atomic mass.
2 THE PERIODIC TABLE Modern periodic tables (Figure 6.5) Also arrange elements into rows and columns.Elements are ordered by increasing atomic number
3 PERIODIC LAW There are 7 periods (rows) in the periodic table. Period 1 = 2 elementsPeriod 2 = 8 elementsPeriod 3 = 8 elementsPeriod 4 = 18 elementsPeriod 5 =18 elementsPeriod 6 = 32 elementsPeriod 7 = 24 elementsEach period = principal energy level.
5 PERIODIC LAW Elements within a Group (column) have similar properties. The properties of elements within a period change as you move across a period from left to right.PERIODIC LAW STATES: when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
6 Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids 80% of elementsGood conductors of heat and electric currentAll are solids at room temperature (EXCEPT: mercury!)Ductile (drawn into wires)Most are malleable
7 Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids Found in the upper right hand corner of the periodic tableMost are gases at room temperature (i.e. oxygen and nitrogen)Poor conductors of heat and electric current (except carbon)Solid nonmetals tend to be brittle
8 Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids Properties similar to both metals and nonmetalsDepending on the conditions a metalloid may behave like a metal or a non metal.
9 CheckpointWhich of these sets of elements have similar physical and chemical properties?a. oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boronb. strontium, magnesium, calcium, berylliumc. nitrogen, neon, nickel, niobiumIdentify each element as a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal.a. gold metal c. sulfur non metalb. silicon metalloid d.barium metal
10 Classifying Elements *** Put your name and date at the top! For helium, label the element symbol, element name, atomic number and the atomic mass.Label all groups and periodsColor code (entire box) with keyMetalsNon metalsMetalloidsGasLiquidSolidIndicate where to find:Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases*** Put your name and date at the top!
11 The Representative Elements Groups IA through 7A.The valence electrons (electrons in the highest occupied energy level)= group number!
12 Transitional Elements Columns 3-12 (or Groups IB-VIIIB)Transition metals and inner transition metalsTransition metals have e- in d orbitals (main body)Inner transition metals have e- in f orbitals (formerly known as rare earth metals)
13 Practice ProblemsUse figure 6.9 and Figure 6.12 (or the s,p,d,f handout) to write the electron configurations of the following elements.A. Carbon1s2 2s2 2p2B. Strontium1s2 2s2 2p63s23p63d104s24p65s2C. Vanadium1s2 2s2 2p63s23p63d34s2
15 PERIODIC TRENDS Atomic Radius 1/2 the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.Measured in picometers(pm)there are one trillion (1012 pm in one meter)Decreases because # of protons increases therefore attractive forces are pulling in the e-’s .Increases because you are adding more energy levels.
16 IONS Ions-charged atoms due to the gain/loss of electrons Anion- ion with a negative (-) charge (nonmetals)Cation-ion with a positive (+) charge (metals)When compounds form, elements gain or lose e-’s to form ions in order to attain a stable noble gas configuration.
17 Ionization Energy Ionization Energy (IE) The amount of energy needed or absorbed to remove an electron from an atom.The further away an e- the less IE needed to remove the e-.( but also consider protons and electrons are increasing)
18 IONIC SIZEAnions (-) are larger than cations (+) due to taking e-’s away which reduces the radius.Among the anions and cations the trend is the same as atomic radiusDecreases Increases
19 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Electronegativity (EN) The ability of an atom to attract itself the electrons when in a compound (bonded).Electrons shift toward the more EN atom