Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table Trends and Similarities. Trends of the Periodic Table: At the conclusion of our time together, you should be able to: 1. Give a trend across."— Presentation transcript:
Periodic Table Trends and Similarities
Trends of the Periodic Table: At the conclusion of our time together, you should be able to: 1. Give a trend across and down the Periodic Table for metallic characteristics, reactivity, atomic radius and ion radius, electron affinity, ionization energy, and electronegativity. 2. Pick the element with the higher trend above from a list of several elements
Trends In The Periodic Table: Ionization Energy Atomic Radius Electron Affinity Electronegativity, Etc.
Periodic Trends Try to determine the trends by looking at the charts on p. 11.
Atomic Radius ½ the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms that are bonded together.
Atomic Radius Trends
Atomic Radius Trend Explanation. 1. Electron-electron repulsion makes radius larger, very weak interactions. 2. Proton – electron attraction = smaller atom 3. Energy level, n (distance from the nucleus), as they go higher = larger atom
Atomic Radius Trends Top to Bottom Left to Right Increases (larger size atom) Decreases (smaller size atom)
Electron Affinity The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom acquires an electron. Energy is released from the atom. Atoms that really want another electron tend to release more energy.
Electron Affinity Trends Top to Bottom Left to Right Decreases (less energy released) Increases (more energy released) Noble Gases = 0
Ionization Energy The energy (effort) required to remove one electron from a neutral atom.
Ionization Energy Trends
Ionization Energy Trend Explanation The closer to the nucleus (smaller atomic radius), the harder to take an electron away. The farther away from the nucleus (larger atomic radius), the easier it is to take an electron away.
Ionization Energy Trends Top to Bottom Left to Right DecreasesIncreases
Electronegativity A measurement of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons. (how strongly an atom holds onto its own electrons and how strongly it needs another electron) Most electronegative element – Fluorine (F) It is assigned the number 4 All other values are based on this value.
Top to Bottom Left to Right DecreasesIncreases
Ionic Radius 1. Cations lose electrons, therefore they tend to be Positive Ions - Metals 2. Anions gain electrons, therefore they tend to be Negative Ions - Nonmetals
Ionic Radius Trends
Cations -lost electron(s) (Metals)Anions -gained electron(s) (Nonmetals) Smaller (compared to original atom) Larger