4 Topic 1. Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization Black Gold1859 Edwin Drake – Steam Engine to drill for OilUsed to make Kerosene then Gasoline for CarsBessemer Steel ProcessLarge Supplies of Coal & Iron in the USBessemer Process Allowed Steel to be produced Quickly & EfficientlyNew Uses for SteelRailroads, Barbed Wire, Farm Equipment, Bridges, Skyscrapers
5 Topic 2. Inventions Promote Change Power of Electricity1876 Thomas Edison opens laboratory at Menlo Park1890 Electricity was running FactoriesAllowed Factories to be more mobileInventions Change Lifestyles1867 Christopher Sholes – Typewriter1876 Alexander G. Bell – Telephone
6 Section 1 Summary:Write your own summary of what is important to remember about section 1. This summary should only be 3-4 sentences.
8 Topic 1. Railroads Span Time & Space National NetworkMay 10, 1869 Transcontinental RailroadPromontory, Utah Central Pacific & Union Pacific metBy K miles of track spanning the USRomance & RealityRailroads met a new start for peopleUnion Pacific – Irish workersCentral Pacific – Chinese workersRailroad Time1883 US began using Time ZonesEastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific
9 Topic 2. Opportunities & Opportunists New Towns & MarketsRailroads allowed Towns to Specialize and GrowPullmanGeorge Pullman created the “Company Town” ModelCredit Mobilier1864 railroad construction scandalUnion Pacific pocketed $23 million in StocksMajor Political officials were involved (VP-Colfax & future President Garfield)
10 Topic 3. The Grange & The Railroads Railroad AbusesMisuse of Government Land Grants, Controlled Prices, Price DiscriminationGranger Laws1877 Munn v. Illinois Supreme Court Supported Regulations on Railroad CompaniesInterstate Commerce Act1887 Interstate Commerce Act establishes Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)ICC tries to control railroad pricesPanic & ConsolidationBy Banks & 15K Business had FailedLarge Financial Companies took over business
11 Section 2 Summary:Write your own summary of what is important to remember about section 2. This summary should only be 3-4 sentences.
13 Topic 1. Carnegie’s Innovations New Business StrategiesEfficiency in Production (New Machinery & Technology) to produce CheaplyHire Talented PeopleVertical Integration – Buying out the Resources & Distribution componentsHorizontal Integration – Buying out the Competition
14 Topic 2. Social Darwinism & Business Principles of Social DarwinismCharles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species talks about “Natural Selection”Business & Markets should not be Regulated by GovernmentThe Best will SurviveNew Definition of SuccessHard work will be rewarded with successThe Poor are lazy or inferior
15 Topic 3. Fewer Control More Growth & ConsolidationMergers – One Company Buying the Stock of another Company to Control itTrusts – Different Companies Giving Stock Control over to a group of Trustees to Control the IndustryRockefeller & the “Robber Barons”Rockefeller used Economic tactics (Economies of Scale) to force competitors out of businessTycoons like Rockefeller & Carnegie donated hundreds of millions back to the communitySherman Antitrust Act1890 Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal to form trust companiesDidn’t work very wellBusiness Boom Bypasses the SouthIndustrialization passed the South by
16 Topic 4. Labor Unions Emerge Long Hours & Danger12 or more hours per day (6 or 7 days a week)Dirty, Dangerous, & DeadlyMen, Women, & Children Worked for Low PayEarly Labor OrganizingNLU – National Labor Union, 1866CNLU – Colored National Labor UnionKnight of Labor, 1869Arbitration & Strikes the tools of Unions
17 Topic 5. Union Movements Diverge Craft UnionismAFL – American Federation of Labor 1886Samuel GompersUnion of Skilled WorkersUsed Strikes & Collective Bargaining to gain higher wages and better working conditionsIndustrial UnionismARU – American Railway Union 1894Eugene DebsUnion of Unskilled, Semiskilled, & Skilled Workers
18 Topic 5. Union Movements Diverge cont. Socialism & the IWWSocialism – Economic & Political System based on Government Control of the economyIWW – Industrial Worker of the World “Wobblies”1905 by William “Big Bill” HaywoodOther Labor Activism in the WestLabor Unions formed for Farmworkers & Miners
19 Topic 6. Strikes Turn Violent Great Strike of 1877Railroad workers went on Strike & Shut down 50K miles of track for a weekPresident Hays sent federal troops to end the strikeHaymarket AffairUnion members gathered to protest police brutalityAs they left a riot broke out Several workers were killedHomestead StrikeSteel works went on StrikePinkerton Detectives were hired to control strikersScabs – replacement workers
20 Topic 6. Strikes Turn Violent cont. Pullman Company Strike1893 Pullman laid off 3,000 employees & reduce worker payStrikes turned violent & Strikers were firedWomen OrganizeUMW – United Mine Workers of America 1877“Equal pay for Equal work”Mary H Jones – Led children workers on a march to Theodore Roosevelt’s houseILGWU – International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union 19091911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 146 women were trappedManagement & Government Pressure Unions“Yellow-Dog Contracts” – Would not join a UnionUsed the Sherman Antitrust Act to stop Unions
21 Section 3 Summary:Write your own summary of what is important to remember about section 3. This summary should only be 3-4 sentences.