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Characteristics of High Gradient Streams Earth and Space Science Earthcomm page U-77-7
Waterway Definitions Stream – small or large flow of water in natural channels River – large flow of water in a natural channel Brook / Creek - terms used for a small stream
Gradient The slope of a stream, GRADIENT, is described as the change (loss) of elevation of the stream with distance downstream. higher gradient = steeper
Areas of the stream that are farthest from the mouth and at the highest elevation of the river system are called the HEADWATERS. usually high gradient slope of land usually the steepest here
Velocity of the Current High gradient streams generally have high flow velocities (>3 m/s or > 10 ft/s) in headwaters, the stream is shallow and does not have much water volume yet
High gradient and fast velocity are capable of moving large particles, such as boulders, across the streambed
Especially during a flood Exert large forces on streambed Erode rapidly
Downcutting – erosion of a valley by a stream can cut straight down canyon - steep walls - valley “V” shaped with steep sides
Valley slopes contain materials loosened by weathering and swept into the stream rain and carried away
Downcutting occurs too rapidly for valleys to widen out NO floodplain can form
Floodplain – area of a river valley next to the channel, made of deposited sediments and covered with water when floods occur valley sides come very close to the river bank
High gradient streams have low stream discharge volume of water passing a point along the river in a given amount of time
Discharge = ( Cross section of stream channel ) X ( Velocity of water ) Measured in cubic feet per second ( ft 3 /s ) or cubic meters per second ( m 3 /s )
Velocity and discharge of a stream vary over time and depending on environmental conditions: Dry conditions = smaller discharge Wet conditions = increased discharge (increased rain or snowfall)
Can be a seasonal cycle (due to weather) of increasing and decreasing discharge flooding
Homework 1. Read U Page 79 #1-5
13.1 Streams and Rivers Key Idea: Streams and rivers carry a portion of the precipitation that falls on land back to the oceans.
Bellringer: How is rock broken up and changed? By Weathering at earth’s surface How is Soil broken up and changed? By Erosion: the physical removal and.
Rivers and Streams. River Systems A river or stream: any body of water flowing downhill in a well defined channel A river or stream: any body of water.
Definitions: Weathering: the break-up of rock at earth’s surface Erosion: the physical removal and transport of rock material by water, wind or ice.
TRANSPORTATION & DEPOSITION in a Stream System.
Running Water & Groundwater Chapter 6 (sec. 1 & 2 only) 200.
Stream Erosion and Transport Erosion: Hydraulic action – erosion caused by the movement of water against stream sediment Abrasion – erosion caused by particles.
Section 13.1 Streams and Rivers. ____________ – a stream and all its tributaries ________ – a smaller stream that empties into a larger stream.
EXIT CHAPTER CHAPTER 13.1 Streams and Rivers 13.2 Stream Erosion and Deposition 13.3 River Valleys 13.4 Flood Plains and Floods CHAPTER OUTLINE Surface.
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AIM: What is a stream/river? Do Now: Answer the following questions in your notebooks. Where does the water come from that fills streams and rivers? Where.
Erosion and Deposition. Running Water is the most effective agent of erosion. Erosion is the process by which earth materials are moved by natural agents.
AIM: What are the parts of a stream/river? Do Now: 1) Take out your ESRT and turn to page 6. 2) On the chart in the upper right, describe what velocity.
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Ch.9 Erosion and Deposition. Section 3: The Force of Moving Water Work and Energy – Energy is the ability to do work or cause change – Two kinds of energy:
LANDFORMS. Canyon Delta Slopes Canyon Basin See how the land is lower here, but not as deep as a canyon!
V-Shaped valleys and Interlocking Spurs.. V-Shaped Valleys V- Shaped Valleys are found in the upper course of the river, where water flows quickly through.
Chapter 2: The Flow of Freshwater. Draw the water cycle diagram in your daybook and label it in your own words. p.41 in your text.
Stream Development. Objective 1. Define deposition as the process by which Earth materials carried by wind, water, or ice settle out and are deposited.
Chapter 13 Surface Water. Chapter 13.1 Streams and Rivers Carry over half of all water that falls on Earth’s surface to the ocean and almost all erosion.
True or False: The Earths surface has stayed the same for thousands of years.
February 05, 2015 Agenda 1.Go over Chapter 9 Test 2.PowerPoint titled: The Active River 3.Possible Video Come in Quietly and sit at your desk with your.
Streams A stream is a body of water that carries rock particles and dissolved ions and flows down slope along a clearly defined path, called a channel.
Water Erosion Chapter 3 Section 2. Standard S 6.2.a – Students know water running downhill is the dominant process in shaping the landscape S 6.2.a.
Objectives Describe how surface water can move weathered materials. Explain how a stream carries its load. Describe how a floodplain develops. Surface.
Streams Objectives: 1.Definition 2.Importance 3.Hydrologic Cycle 4.Geometry and Dynamics.
River Systems - Runoff. Running Water Integral part of sculpting the Earth’s surface MOST IMPORTANT AGENT OF EROSION Indirectly results in the formation.
Streams and Drainage Systems The most important source of moving water.
Streams and Rivers Definitions Tributary: A stream that runs into another stream or river River System: A river and all of its tributaries Watershed:
Rivers Almost half of the water that falls to the Earth’s surface eventually ends up in a stream or river (runoff), where it travels overland to the.
True or False: The Earth’s surface has stayed the same for thousands of years.
The Earth’s surface changes over time due to weathering and erosion.
Transpiration Similar to evaporation, this is the loss of water through plants. – Pores in leaves (stomata) are opened to release oxygen and water vapor.
Velocity Gradient – rise over run Channel shape Channel roughness Discharge – amount of water flow per unit time, as discharge increases,
Beginning of a stream; high elevation.
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By Water and Wind. Any natural process that removes sediments and carries them away from one place to another is called erosion. Gravity is the driving.
Streams and Rivers Stream Erosion and Deposition River Valleys Flood Plains and Floods Surface Water.
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