2 Key Concepts. . . Students will identify What the water cycle is What it means when we say earth’s Water Cycle is balancedWhat is the most important factor in determining the power of a stream to erode and transport materialHow do gradient and discharge change between a stream’s source and it’s mouthWhat is a stream’s base level
3 Earth’s Water Water is everywhere on Earth The oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, moisture in clouds, soil, air, and plants make up the Earth’s hydrosphere.About 97.2% of the earth’s water is stored in the oceans.Ice sheets and glaciers account for another 2.15%The remaining .65% is the water found in lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater and the atmosphere.
4 The Water CycleWater constantly moves among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. This unending circulation of Earth’s water supply is the water cycle.This cycle is possible because water readily changes from one state of matter; solid, liquid or gas, to another at temperatures and pressures common on Earth’s surface.
5 The Water CycleThe water cycle is a gigantic world wide system powered by energy from the sun and gravity.Water evaporates into the atmosphere from the ocean, and to the lesser extent the continents.Winds transport this moisture rich air until conditions cause the moisture to condense into clouds.
6 The Water Cycle Precipitation, rain and snow, than falls to Earth. Rain that falls into oceans has completed the cycle and is ready to begin the cycle again.Rain-snow that has fallen on land must find it’s way back to the ocean to complete the full cycle.
7 The Water Cycle What happens to precipitation that falls on land? Some of it slowly soaks into the ground in a process called infiltration.Infiltration is the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces.
8 The Water CycleThe water gradually moves through the land and actually seeps into lakes, streams, or the ocean.When the rate of rainfall exceeds the Earth’s ability to absorb it, the excess water flows over the surface into lakes and streams in a process called runoff.
9 The Water CycleMuch of the runoff returns to the atmosphere because of evaporation from the soil, lakes, and streams.Plants also absorb water and release it into the atmosphere through transpiration.
10 Earth’s Water BalanceEven with all these processes occurring, Earth’s water cycle is balanced.Balance in the water cycle means the average annual precipitation over Earth equals the amount of water that evaporates.There are imbalances in areas; for example, precipitation exceeds evaporation over continents. Over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation. These balance out in the big picture of the whole system.
11 StreamflowGravity influences the way water makes it’s way to the ocean. Streams and rivers carry water downhill from the land to the sea. The time this takes depends on the velocity of the water.Velocity is the distance that water travels in a period of time.Along straight stretches of water, the highest velocities are near the center just below the surface.The center of the channel is where the friction is the lowest.
12 StreamflowThe ability of stream to erode and transport materials depends largely on it’s velocity.Several factors determine the velocity of a stream. They includeit’s gradientthe shape,size,and roughness of it’s channel;and it’s discharge.
13 Gradient Gradient is the slope or steepness of a stream channel Gradient is usually expressed as the amount of vertical drop of a stream over a certain distance.The gradient of a mountain stream is much steeper than an old river which flows slowly.The steeper the gradient, the more energy the stream has as it flows downhill.
14 Channel Characteristics A stream channel is the course the water in a stream follows.As it flows, it encounters friction from the sides and bottom of the channel. This friction slows it’s forward movement.The shape, size and roughness of the channel affect the amount of friction.
15 Channel Characteristics An irregular channel filled with boulders creates enough turbulence to slow the stream significantly.Water in a smooth channel flows more easily.Large channels also have more efficient water flow because a smaller proportion of water is in contact with the sides
16 DischargeThe discharge of a stream is the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit if time.Discharge is usually measured in cubic meters per second.The discharges of most rivers fluctuate with rainfall and snowmelt.The size and velocity of a stream changes when the discharge rate changes.
17 DischargeBuilding urban centers around a stream can also affect discharge.For example, the intensity and size of floods can increase.The construction of streets, parking lots, and buildings cover up soil that once soaked up rainwater.This increases runoff, especially when heavy rains occur.Also because less water soaks into the ground, the dry season flow of streams is reduced.
18 Changes from Upstream to Downstream One useful way to look at a stream is to look at it’s profile.A profile is a cross sectional view of a stream from it’s source (or headwaters) to it’s mouth, the point where it empties into another body of waterThe most obvious feature of a typical stream is the decreasing gradient or slope from it’s headwaters to it’s mouth.
19 Changes from Upstream to Downstream While gradient decreases between a streams headwaters and mouth, discharge increases.The amount of discharge increases because more and more tributaries enter the main channel as it moves downstream.A tributary is a stream that moves into another stream.
20 Changes from Upstream to Downstream As the river moves downstream, the width, depth and velocity change with the increased volume of water.Contrary to what might be expected, the average velocity of a mountain stream high up may be lower than that of the larger river it enters.This is because the stream at it’s headwaters may flow over boulders and rocks that slow it down. Further down, as the river grows larger, the river widens and deepens allowing more water to move with less friction in the smoother channel.
21 Base LevelStreams cannot erode their channels endlessly. There is a lower limit to how low a stream can erode.Base level is the lowest point to which a stream can erode it’s channel.The base level is the level at which the mouth of a stream enters the ocean, a lake, or another stream
22 Base Level There are two types of base level Ultimate base levelTemporary base levelSea level is the ultimate base level because it’s the lowest level that erosion can lower the land to.Temporary base level includes lakes, resistant layers of rock, and main streams that act as base level for their tributariesWhen a stream enters a lake, it’svelocity quickly approaches zero.it’s ability to erode ceases.
23 MeandersA stream in a broad flat-bottomed valley that is near it’s ultimate base level develops a course with many bends called meanders.If base level dropped, or land was uplifted with the river, the river would have excess energy and would downcut it’s channel. The result would be incised meanders; a winding river in a steep narrow valley
24 Key ConceptsWater constantly moves around the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. This unending circulation of Earth’s water supply is the Water Cycle.Balance in the water cycle means the average annual precipitation over Earth equals the amount of water evaporated.The ability of a stream to erode and transport materials depends largely on it’s velocity.While gradient decreases between a stream’s headwaters and mouth, discharge increases.Base level is the lowest point to which a stream can erode it’s channel.
25 Computer Lab: Go to the computer lab and do the following assignment: Write a one page (doublespaced) report answering the following question in your own words using the internet and your past chapters for research. Save it in a word doc in your folder in the shared-files folder on your desktop.Coal burning power plants create sulfides that go into our atmosphere and react with other ingredients to become sulfuric acid. Describe how these pollutants than enter the Water Cycle and affect other points in the environment.