Presentation on theme: "Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability Chapter 1Introducing Environmental Science and SustainabilityWhat are these? How do they relate to issues of globalization and sustainability?
2 Human Impacts on the Environment Increasing Human NumbersWhat does this picture show?
3 Human Impacts on the Environment Most populous countries:1) China 1,374,853,0002) India 1,155,011,0003) United States 309,163,0004) Indonesia ,825,0005) Brazil ,580,000In what types of countries is most of the growth occurring?Of the 400 cities with a population of at least 1 million, 234 are in developing countries.Source: US Census Bureau, Global Population Profile: 2002What is a Highly Developed Country?A Moderately Developed Country?A Less Developed Country?
4 Human Impacts on the Environment At what type of rate is the population growing?
5 How Fast Is the Human Population Growing? At an exponential rate!Human death rates have dropped because of an increase in food supplies and better health and sanitation.Doubling Time - A measure of population growth where the number of years it takes for a population growing at a specified rate to double its size.To calculate “Doubling Time,” use the Rule of 70.
6 Human Impacts on the Environment Poverty :per capita income of less than $1 a day1.2 billion worldwide currently live at this levelLeads to . . .Inadequate health careUnsanitary waterPoor nutritionLower life expectancy
7 Relationship Betwen Population Growth, Use of Natural Resources, and Environmental Degradation The resources essential to survival are small, but individuals in developing countries deplete these resources because of their increasing population.In developed nations, resource demands are large (extravagent consumers), and resources are exhausted.
8 What is a Resource?Resource -- Anything obtained from the environment to meet human needs and wants.Renewable Resource - Can be replenished rapidly through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replacedExamples?What is a resources sustainable yield?When does “Environmental Degradation” occur?Nonrenewable Resource - resources that exist in a fixed quantity or stock in the earth’s crust
9 Population, Resources, and the Environment Types of resources:Renewable, but only when managed in a sustainable wayWhat does sustainable mean?What is the sustainable yield of a resource?
10 Population, Resources, and the Environment Resource Consumption:Because of our greater consumption rates, 1 US child has the environmental impact of 12+ children in less developed countries.
11 Population, Resources, and the Environment What is the difference between people overpopulation and consumption overpopulation?People Overpopulation: when excess # of people cause environmental damage.Consumption Overpopulation: when people consume enormous amounts of natural resources.
12 Population, Resources, and the Environment Ecological footprintEcological Footprint -- the amount of land needed to produce the resources needed by an average person in a country.
13 Population, Resources, and the Environment IPAT ModelWhy is this a good model? Why is this NOT a good model?Environmental ImpactAffluence per personI = P A TEnvironmental effect of technologiesNumber of people
14 Environmental Sustainability Sustainability and the Tragedy of the CommonsWhat is the Tragedy of the Commons?Garrett Hardin
15 Environmental Science The Process of ScienceProblem recognition or questionNew knowledgeHypothesis developmentExperimentationMake predictionsOther scientistsAnalysisShare knowledgeNOHypothesis supported?YES
16 Environmental Science Controls and Variables inExperimental DesignVariable:factors influencing processes being examined.hypothesis examines ONE variable, holding others constant. This one variable is called the independent variable. What this change affects is the dependent variable.Control group :examined variable is left unaltered
17 Environmental Science Inductive and Deductive ReasoningInductive - examines a series of facts for commonalities that can be concluded.Example:Fact: an ant has six legsFact: a wasp has six legsFact: a beetle has six legsConclusion: all insects have six legsDeductive - examines for relationships among data moving from generalities to specifics.General rule: all insects have six legsSpecific example: a grasshopper is an insectTherefore: a grasshopper has six legs