2President George Washington's Farwell Address guided American foreign policy for over 100 years: “… steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.”While some believed this policy meant the U.S. should be isolationist others pointed out Washington supported trade with other countries and was not calling for complete isolation in the world.In 1890, the nation had expanded from sea to shining sea and the government issued a report announcing the end of the frontier. To many Americans this lack of a frontier was alarming and they began to look beyond America’s boarders (expansionism) for a new frontier with the goal of expanding trade and to compete for political influence.
3Opening JapanDuring the Mid-1800’s, American merchants made a great deal of money trading with ChinaThis led many to want to open trade with Japan, which had chosen to remain isolated from the West.1853, President Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Mathew Perry on a mission to Japan to open trade.Perry steamed into Tokyo Bay with four warships and asked the Japanese to open their ports to U.S. ships.Perry returned after several months and found America’s display of Naval force had convinced the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa.The treaty opened two ports to American ships and ended Japan’s isolationism from the West.
4ImperialismThe 1900’s were called the age of imperialism a time when many European nations created large empires by obtaining economic and political control over weaker nationsThe search for raw materials and markets fueled imperialismEuropean powers competed for power and influence in Asia and Africa.Secretary of State William H. Seward pictured an American empire that would dominate the Caribbean, Central America, and the Pacific.Central to maintaining this empire would be a canal across Central America that would link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.Seward purchased Alaska in 1867, from Russia for $7.2 million a territory twice the size of Texas.Many newspapers and people criticized the purchase as a barren wasteland and it was dubbed Seward’s Folly by his critics.After gold was discovered in the 1890’s (and later on oil and other resources) Seward’s Folly became a bargain
5A Sense of MissionSome Americans had a belief they could lift up people they considered “uncivilized” by sharing Christianity and Western Civilization with the rest of the world.Josiah Strong proposed missionaries be sent to teach Christian religious beliefs and Western culture to the uncivilized peoples of the world especially in Latin AmericaA sense that there was a “White Man’s Burden” existed in many nonsectarian citizens who looked for America to help civilize her savage neighbors.
7Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan He called for improving and enlarging the navy.He argued that sea power would protect shipping and provide access to world marketsTo maintain a powerful navy the U.S. would need overseas colonies where ships could be supplied and refueled.By the early 1900’s the U.S. had the naval power it needed to back up an expanded role in world affairs.
8Imperialism in the Pacific Secretary of State William H. Sewardbelieved the U.S. could build its empire inHawaii through trade.In 1868, Seward acquired two more smallPacific Islands of Midway as a stoppingoff point for American ships going to ChinaThe navy and merchant ships needed morethan just these small islands to secure thePacific.Hawaii would be a great port that wouldhelp secure the PacificChristian missionaries had already arrivedin Hawaii in the 1820’s.A large sugar plantation business had been established by merchants who brought in workers from Japan and China to work the land.Hawaiians led by Queen Liliuokalani tried to regain economic control from the Americans.U.S. diplomat John Stevens arranged for marines to assist an uprising and secure the annexation of Hawaii to the U.S. the treaty was signed by President Benjamin Harrison
13Rivalries in ChinaFor Americans the Pacific islands were a stepping stone to a larger prize, ChinaChina was torn apart by internal fighting and lacked industry that made it too weak militarily to resist foreign powers who wanted to exploit its vast resources and marketsBy the late 1800’s Japan and the European powers had claimed spheres of influence in China where each country had special rights and powersU.S. leaders worried the country would be squeezed out of the profitable Chinese marketSecretary of State John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy under which each foreign nation in China could trade freely in the other nations spheres of influenceThe foreign nations were not quick to agree to this policy that benefited the U.S. the mostThis soon changed in 1899, because a secret martial arts society known as the Boxers began a violent revolt to rid China of the “foreign devils”
15- Mark Twain; Berkeley Lyceum, New York, November 23, 1900 China never wanted foreigners any more than foreigners wanted Chinamen, and on this question I am with the Boxers every time. The Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success. The Boxer believes in driving us out of his country. I am a Boxer too, for I believe in driving him out of our country.
16The Boxer RebellionMany died during the revolt and for two months hundreds of foreigners were trapped in the capital city of BeijingIn August of 1900, foreign troops broke the siege and defeated the Boxers.After the rebellion a second Open Door proposal stressed the importance of keeping China independent and respecting its boardersAlarmed by the rebellion the other foreign powers accepted Hay’s proposalTrying to expand its own power in Asia, Japan began to ignore the Open Door policy. These actions led to war with Russia and conflict with the U.S. and eventually it culminated in the Russo-Japanese War. But by 1905 both nations were worn down and looking for peaceTeddy Roosevelt helped settle the conflict by negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth which recognized Japans control of Korea in return for ending its continued push to expand.
18Strained Japanese - U.S. Relations During the Russo-Japanese War Japanese immigration increased greatly to the U.S.Many Americans resented the Japanese immigrants as newcomers who took their jobsIn 1906, the San Francisco Board of Education ordered all Asian students attend separate schools.The Japanese government protested that a 1894 treaty had guaranteed Japanese living the the U.S. would be treated wellThey felt the U.S. broke that treatyPresident Roosevelt forced San Francisco to change its policy in return for a Gentleman’s Agreement to restrict Japanese immigration to the U.S.Although he planned no war Roosevelt in 1907, sent 16 gleaming white ships on a tour around the world to impress other nations including the Japanese who soon resolved their differences with the U.S.The Great White Fleet put on world display America’s naval power
20The Cuban RebellionCubans longed for their colonial ruler Spain to leaveSpain smashed and defeated a Cuban rebellion forcing Jose Marti to flee to the U.S. to gather money, arms, and troopsIn 1895, Marti returned to Cuba and led a revoltMany people including Marti died. The rebels burned sugarcane fields hoping to get the Spaniards to leaveThe Spaniards retaliated by herding Cubans into reconcentration camps to separate them from the rebelsThousands died in the camps from starvation and diseaseThe Cuban struggle got the attention of U.S. businessmen who wanted to protect their investments and trade with the islandOthers were afraid of rebellion so close to the U.S.President Grover Cleveland opposed U.S. interventionWhen William McKinley became President he too looked to keep the U.S. out of the war
21Remember The MaineAfter rioting broke out in the Cuban Capital of Havana President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to protect American citizens and propertyAfter three weeks the ship exploded and sunk in Havana Harbor killing about 260 officers and crewAmerican Newspapers blamed the Spanish and the slogan “Remember The Maine” became a rallying cry for revenge and war against SpainWhen negotiations failed to easy American concerns Congress recognized Cuban independenceOn April 25, 1898 Congress declared war on Spain
22Yellow Journalism1898, newspapers provided the major source of news in America. At this time, it was common practice for a newspaper to report the editor's interpretation of the news rather than objective journalism. If the information reported was inaccurate or biased, the American public had little means for verification. With this sort of influence, the newspapers wielded much political power. In order to increase circulation, the publishers of these papers often exploited their position by sponsoring a flamboyant and irresponsible approach to news reporting that became known as "yellow journalism." The term was used to describe the journalistic practices of Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst. Of the two men today, it is Hearst’s name that is synonymous with "yellow journalism. The two men used the practice to help stir the American public to a call for war with Spain
23Fighting in CubaThe Spanish fleet entered the harbor of Santiago in Cuba on May 19An American naval force trapped the Spanish in the harbor and blockaded the coastAn American land force of 17,000, one quarter of which was African American landed near the cityMuch of the U.S. force was ill-equipped yet, they joined forces with the Cuban rebels and engaged the SpanishTeddy Roosevelt had resigned his position as Secretary of the Navy to join the fighting in Cuba. He led the 1st. Regiment of U.S. Cavalry Volunteers known as the Rough RidersOn July 1, the Rough Riders along with African American soldiers of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalries, joined in the Battle of San Juan HillThe Americans captured San Juan Hill after intense fighting.This led to a Spanish attempt at retreat by breaking out of the blockade of Santiago, after a four hour battle the Spanish fleet was destroyed. This ended Spanish resistance in Cuba
26The Spanish American War in the Pacific Although events in Cuba started the War the first military action was seen in the Spanish colony of the PhilippinesThe islands served as a Pacific base for the Spanish fleetOn May 1, Commodore George Dewey launched a surprise attack on the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay destroying most of the shipsAmerican troops arrived in July and helped Filipino rebels led by Emilio AquinaldoThe American forces seized the capital Manila and the island of LuzonThe rebels declared independence and looked to the U.S. for supportThe U.S. debated what to do with the islands and did not support the rebelsThe U.S. gained possession of the Philippines after the war which, led to anti-imperialist debates at home and a new rebellion in the Philippines against the new American colonial rulersOver 4000 Americans died in the fighting while the Filipinos suffered at least 200,000 soldiers and civilians killedWhen Aguinaldo was captured much of the fighting ended.In 1901 William Howard Taft transferred authority to the Filipinos who gained full independence in 1946
28“A Splendid Little War” Secretary of State John Hay called the Spanish American War “a splendid little war”The war lasted four months and 400 Americans died.More than 2000 additional died from tropical diseases like yellow fever and malariaAfrican Americans faced discrimination and segregation in the military battling alongside the Cuban rebel army where black and white troops fought as equals
29American Acquisitions The U.S. and Spain signed The Treaty of Paris Dec. 10, 1898 marking an end to the warCuba became a U.S. protectorate (an independent country under control of another country)Puerto Rico and Guam became territories of the U.S.Spain also surrendered the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 millionIn 1901, the U.S. granted Cuba independence but only if their new constitution included concessions to the U.S. known as the Platt AmendmentThe amendment prohibited Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave America control of the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay. The U.S. could also interfere in Cuban affairs if the countries independence was threatened
30Latin American Policies The U.S. wished to build a canal across Central America to connect her two oceans and newly acquired territories, thereby ending the long voyage around South AmericaThe French had a contract to build a canal in the Columbian province of Panama, an isthmus (a strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land)The French had failed at building the canal and the U.S. bought the lease from the French for $40 millionIn 1903, Secretary Hays negotiated a treaty for a 99 year lease on the land in exchange for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000Columbian opposition grew against the deal. This angered President RooseveltHe used the Big Stick Foreign policy to support Panamanian rebels in a revolt against Columbia and intervened against Columbia when they sent troopsOn Nov. 6, the U.S. recognized Panama’s independence and Hays signed a new treaty with the country of PanamaSome members of Congress were angered by Roosevelt’s actions but Roosevelt replied: “I took the canal zone and let Congress debate”
33Building the CanalWorkers in Panama faced many hardships including heat , a damp tropical jungle, and mosquitoes that swarmed and carried many diseases including yellow fever and malariaColonel William Gorgas, an Army doctor went to Panama to fight the diseasesGorgas instructed workers to drain swamps, spray insecticide, spread oil on stagnant pools of water, and cut grassy marshes in order to destroy mosquito breedingBy 1906, the measures eliminated most diseasesWithout disease the canal was finished and is regarded as one of the greatest engineering feats of all time.The canal cut through dense jungle and over mountains. Huge amounts of earth were dug out and used to build a dam, a large lake was created, and giant locks raised and lowered ships from sea level , over the mountains, and back down again on the other side.
34Policing the Western Hemisphere Roosevelt CorollaryAmerica has the right to act as “policeman” in Latin AmericaTo preserve American interests the U.S. would intervene reluctantlyThis policy was an addition to the Monroe DoctrineDollar DiplomacyWhile Roosevelt thought of American power in military terms his successor William Howard Taft took a different viewTaft wanted to alter American foreign policy by “substituting dollars for bullets”Taft was willing to intervene in other nations when U.S. business interests were threatenedHe believed American investments would bring stability to troubled areas of the world as well as profit and power to the U.S.Moral DiplomacyWoodrow Wilson believed in the ideals of American Democracy. Wilson understood the need for military power but also attempted to follow a foreign policy based on moral principles.
35Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy is Challenged in Mexico Mexican Civil War broke out against the government of Porfirio Diaz a brutal dictatorThe rebels were led by Francisco Madero who was then overthrown by Victoriano Huerta. Huerta’s government was brutal and not recognized by Wilson. Without U.S. support it was hoped it would collapseWilson sold arms to Huerta’s rival and Huerta’s troops arrested some American sailors. Wilson sent troops to the port of Veracruz, the show of force made Huerta fleePancho Villa a rebel continued fighting and attacked the U.S. and killed 16 AmericansThe U.S. sent General Pershing to try and capture Villa in Mexico. They pursued him for a year before withdrawing. War was barely averted.