2Imperialism-Definition The Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
33 Reasons for American Imperialism 1. Economic competition for raw materials and markets for its manufactured goods. 2. Political and Military competition, based on the need for a powerful new navy 3. A belief in racial superiority and mission to spread Christianity and civilization to the world
4Social DarwinismA belief that the world's nations were engaged in a Darwinian struggle for survival and that countries that failed to compete were doomed to decline also contributed to a new assertiveness on the part of the United States.
5Anglo-SaxonismHistorian John Fiske argued that English-speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government, and were destined to dominate the planet. This view became known as Anglo- Saxonism.John Fiske
6Josiah StrongSome Americans had a belief they could lift up people they considered “uncivilized” by sharing Christianity and Western Civilization with the rest of the world. Josiah Strong proposed missionaries be sent to teach Christian religious beliefs and Western culture to the uncivilized peoples of the world especially in Latin America.
7Seward’s FollySecretary of State William H. Seward pictured an American empire that would dominate the Caribbean, Central America, and the Pacific. Central to maintaining this empire would be a canal across Central America that would link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Seward purchased Alaska in 1867, from Russia for $7.2 million a territory twice the size of Texas.William H. SewardAlaska was a bargainat two cents per acre.
8Seward’s FollyMany newspapers and people criticized the purchase as a barren wasteland and it was dubbed Seward’s Folly by his critics. After gold was discovered in the 1890’s (and later on oil and other resources) Seward’s Folly became a bargain.
9Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Japan During the Mid-1800’s, American merchants made a great deal of money trading with China This led many to want to open trade with Japan, which had chosen to remain isolated from the West. Japan feared excessive contact with the West would destroy their culture.Commodore Matthew Perry
10Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Japan 1853, President Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry on a mission to Japan to open trade. Perry steamed into Tokyo Bay with four warships and asked the Japanese to open their ports to U.S. ships. Perry returned after several months and found America’s display of Naval force had convinced the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa. The treaty opened two ports to American ships and ended Japan’s isolationism from the West.
11Westernization of Japan The decision of the U.S. to force Japan to open trade played an important role in Japanese History. It made Japanese leaders realize it was time to remake their society. Japanese leaders began to westernize their country by adopted western technology and starting their own Industrial Revolution.
12Annexing HawaiiIn 1868, Seward acquired the Pacific Islands of Midway and Hawaii as a stopping off point for American ships going to China. A large sugar plantation business was established by merchants who brought in workers from Japan and China to work the land. In 1887 wealthy planters pressured the Hawaiian King into accepting a new constitution which limited the King’s authority and gave more power to the planters.Powerful Planter, Sanford B. Dole
13Annexing HawaiiIn 1891 Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and tried to regain economic control from the Americans. In 1893 U.S. diplomat John Stevens arranged for marines to assist an uprising and secure the annexation of Hawaii to the U.S. the treaty was signed by President Benjamin HarrisonQueen Liliuokalani
14Building a Sea PowerCaptain Alfred Thayer Mahan published The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, He used the British and Dutch as examples of prosperous nations that built large merchant fleets and large navies to protect the merchant fleets as examples. He called for improving and enlarging the navy. He argued that sea power would protect shipping and provide access to world markets.Captain Alfred T. Mahan
15Building a Sea PowerTo maintain a powerful navy the U.S. would need overseas colonies where ships could be supplied and refueled. By the early 1900’s the U.S. had the naval power it needed to back up an expanded role in world affairs.