Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Research Methodology Dr. Tamer El Sharnouby Assistant Professor of Marketing Cairo University

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Research Methodology Dr. Tamer El Sharnouby Assistant Professor of Marketing Cairo University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Methodology Dr. Tamer El Sharnouby Assistant Professor of Marketing Cairo University

2 Textbook Jill Collis & Roger Hussey. (2009). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Third edition. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. Jill Collis & Roger Hussey. (2009). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Third edition. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. Jill CollisRoger Hussey Jill CollisRoger Hussey

3 Module 1 Understanding Research Outline: - Definition and purpose of research, - The qualities of a good researcher, - Main types of research.

4 Definition and purpose of research Research means different things to different people. Research means different things to different people. Research: Research: - Process of enquiry and investigation, - Systematic and methodical, - Increases knowledge, - Thorough and rigorous, and - Appropriate methodology and method. -

5 Purpose of research: To review and synthesise existing knowledge, To review and synthesise existing knowledge, To investigate some existing situation and problem, To investigate some existing situation and problem, To provide a solution to a problem, To provide a solution to a problem, To explore and analyse some general issues, To explore and analyse some general issues, To construct or create a new procedure or system, To construct or create a new procedure or system, To explain a new phenomenon, To explain a new phenomenon, To generate new knowledge, and To generate new knowledge, and A combination of any of the above. A combination of any of the above.

6 Qualities of a good researcher You might have some.... Others you need to develop: Communication skills: the ability to communicate your understanding of the research area (submission of dissertation, thesis, proposal, defence in viva, oral examination). Communication skills: the ability to communicate your understanding of the research area (submission of dissertation, thesis, proposal, defence in viva, oral examination).

7 Written and verbal communication skills are needed: Applying for funding, Applying for funding, Discussing your project with your supervisor, Discussing your project with your supervisor, Negotiating access to sources of data, Negotiating access to sources of data, Conducting interview, Conducting interview, Designing interviews, Designing interviews, leading a focus group, leading a focus group, Writing and presenting conference paper, Writing and presenting conference paper, Writing academic journal articles. Writing academic journal articles.

8 Intellectual skills: Knowledge, Knowledge, Comprehension, Comprehension, Application, Application, Analysis, Analysis, Synthesis, Synthesis, Evaluation Evaluation

9 Information technology skills Word-processing program (write your notes, any quotations and references from literature, results of any survey, observations,...etc later on you can manipulate and refine) Word-processing program (write your notes, any quotations and references from literature, results of any survey, observations,...etc later on you can manipulate and refine) Statistical packages (Minitab, SPSS, Stata) Statistical packages (Minitab, SPSS, Stata) Database (quantitative data and qualitative data), Database (quantitative data and qualitative data), Computerized library and online databases, Computerized library and online databases, Internet. Internet.

10 Organizational skills Time management: many tasks...time consuming: Timetable for your research ASAP, Timetable for your research ASAP, List all activities you have to undertake and estimate the time you think it will take to complete them, List all activities you have to undertake and estimate the time you think it will take to complete them, To start writing a satisfactory first draft proposal... Shut the door, unplug the telephone, switch of mobile and sit down with you books and papers for five or six hours without interruption. To start writing a satisfactory first draft proposal... Shut the door, unplug the telephone, switch of mobile and sit down with you books and papers for five or six hours without interruption.

11 Motivation Choose a subject you are interested in. Your reason for doing the research: I love the subject, I love the subject, I love studying, I love studying, I want to be intellectual, I want to be intellectual, I have a personal question I want to answer, I have a personal question I want to answer, I want to be creative and useful, I want to be creative and useful, I want to be a member of the research community, I want to be a member of the research community, I need to get a better job, I need to get a better job, Employers want people with this qualification, Employers want people with this qualification, All my friends are doing it, and All my friends are doing it, and It’s part of my course. It’s part of my course.

12 Major Limitations in Conducting a Research Time Costs Access to resources Approval by authorities Ethical concerns Expertise

13 Types of research: According to: The purpose: Exploratory, descriptive, analytical and predictive research. The purpose: Exploratory, descriptive, analytical and predictive research. Process/approach: Quantitative vs Qualitative. Process/approach: Quantitative vs Qualitative. Applied vs Basic research Applied vs Basic research

14 Research Approaches Observations/ Data Theory Patterns Inductive Deductive Hypotheses Observations/ Data Theory Deductive Inductive Observations/ Data Theory Deductive

15 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methodological Assumption (Cresswell 1994: 5) QuantitativeQualitative Deductive process Inductive process Cause and effect Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors Static design – categories isolated before study Emerging design – categories identified during research process Generalization leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding Patterns, theories developed for understanding Accurate and reliable through validity and reliability Accurate and reliable through verification

16 Assumptions of qualitative designs 1.Q ualitative researchers are concerned primarily with process, rather than outcomes or products. 2.Q ualitative researchers are interested in meaning. 3.T he qualitative researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. Data are mediated through this human instrument, rather than through questionnaires, or machines. 4.Q ualitative research involves fieldwork. The researcher physically goes to the people setting, site, or institution to observe or record behavior in its natural setting. 5.Q ualitative research is descriptive in that the researcher is interested in process, meaning and understanding gained through words or pictures. 6.T he process of qualitative research is inductive in that the researcher builds abstractions, concepts, hypotheses, and theories from details.

17 Assumptions of qualitative designs The nature of reality: multiple, constructed and holistic The nature of reality: multiple, constructed and holistic The relationship of knower to known: interactive, inseparable. The relationship of knower to known: interactive, inseparable. Generalization: a “working hypothesis” that describes a single case Generalization: a “working hypothesis” that describes a single case Causal linkages: mutual simultaneous shaping. Causal linkages: mutual simultaneous shaping. Inquiry is value bound. Inquiry is value bound.

18 When to use qualitative research For problems that need exploration For problems that need exploration For problems that need a complex detailed understanding. For problems that need a complex detailed understanding. To write in styles that push the limits of formal academic narratives To write in styles that push the limits of formal academic narratives To understand contexts To understand contexts The topic has been researched for a long time in the same way The topic has been researched for a long time in the same way The topic is new to research The topic is new to research You would like in-depth information that may be difficult to convey quantitatively You would like in-depth information that may be difficult to convey quantitatively

19 Qual Data Collection Methods Interviews Interviews Focus groups Focus groups Participant observation (field notes) Participant observation (field notes) Video Video Text and Image analysis (documents, media data) Text and Image analysis (documents, media data)

20 Assumptions of quantitative designs Quan: what, where, and when of natural phenomena Quan: what, where, and when of natural phenomena develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses related to natural phenomena develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses related to natural phenomena Involve large samples of subjects; deal with cause/effect Involve large samples of subjects; deal with cause/effect Associated with positivism: that objective truth can be known with certainty, that it can be gained through rational methods Associated with positivism: that objective truth can be known with certainty, that it can be gained through rational methods

21 Positivism A single, tangible reality "out there" that can be broken apart into pieces capable of being studied independently A single, tangible reality "out there" that can be broken apart into pieces capable of being studied independently The separation of the observer from the observed The separation of the observer from the observed What is true at one time and place will also be true at another time and place What is true at one time and place will also be true at another time and place An assumption of linear causality; there are no effects without causes and no causes without effects An assumption of linear causality; there are no effects without causes and no causes without effects The results of an inquiry are essentially free from beliefs, interpretations The results of an inquiry are essentially free from beliefs, interpretations

22 Quantitative Methods Survey Survey Experiments Experiments

23 Quantitative concerns Useful in areas like user demographics, patterns of use; BUT: Can produce a false sense of certainty Can produce a false sense of certainty Takes the subject outside of natural setting/tasks Takes the subject outside of natural setting/tasks Quantifies unquantifiable phenomenon Quantifies unquantifiable phenomenon

24 Choice of Methodology & Methods Depends on Depends on Research Questions Research Questions Research Goals Research Goals Researcher Beliefs and Values Researcher Beliefs and Values Researcher Skills Researcher Skills Time and Funds Time and Funds

25 References Cornford, T. and Smithson, S. (1996). Project Research in Information Systems. A Student’s Guide. Macmillan. London. Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2 nd ed., pp.1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2 nd ed., pp.1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

26 Questions? Dr. Tamer El Sharnouby


Download ppt "Research Methodology Dr. Tamer El Sharnouby Assistant Professor of Marketing Cairo University"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google