Presentation on theme: "Assistant Professor of Marketing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Assistant Professor of Marketing Research MethodologyDr. Tamer El SharnoubyAssistant Professor of MarketingCairo University
2 TextbookJill Collis & Roger Hussey. (2009). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Third edition. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire.
3 Module 1 Understanding Research Outline:Definition and purpose of research,The qualities of a good researcher,Main types of research.
4 Definition and purpose of research Research means different things to different people.Research:Process of enquiry and investigation,Systematic and methodical,Increases knowledge,Thorough and rigorous, andAppropriate methodology and method.
5 Purpose of research: To review and synthesise existing knowledge, To investigate some existing situation and problem,To provide a solution to a problem,To explore and analyse some general issues,To construct or create a new procedure or system,To explain a new phenomenon,To generate new knowledge, andA combination of any of the above.
6 Qualities of a good researcher You might have some.... Others you need to develop:Communication skills: the ability to communicate your understanding of the research area (submission of dissertation, thesis, proposal, defence in viva, oral examination).
7 Written and verbal communication skills are needed: Applying for funding,Discussing your project with your supervisor,Negotiating access to sources of data,Conducting interview,Designing interviews,leading a focus group,Writing and presenting conference paper,Writing academic journal articles.
9 Information technology skills Word-processing program (write your notes, any quotations and references from literature, results of any survey, observations,...etc later on you can manipulate and refine)Statistical packages (Minitab, SPSS, Stata)Database (quantitative data and qualitative data) ,Computerized library and online databases,Internet.
10 Organizational skills Time management: many tasks ...time consuming:Timetable for your research ASAP,List all activities you have to undertake and estimate the time you think it will take to complete them,To start writing a satisfactory first draft proposal... Shut the door, unplug the telephone, switch of mobile and sit down with you books and papers for five or six hours without interruption.
11 Motivation Choose a subject you are interested in. Your reason for doing the research:I love the subject,I love studying,I want to be intellectual,I have a personal question I want to answer,I want to be creative and useful,I want to be a member of the research community,I need to get a better job,Employers want people with this qualification,All my friends are doing it, andIt’s part of my course.
12 Major Limitations in Conducting a Research TimeCostsAccess to resourcesApproval by authoritiesEthical concernsExpertise
13 Types of research: According to: The purpose: Exploratory, descriptive, analytical and predictive research.Process/approach: Quantitative vs Qualitative.Applied vs Basic research
14 Research Approaches Deductive Deductive Deductive Patterns Hypotheses InductiveInductive
15 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methodological Assumption (Cresswell 1994: 5) Deductive processInductive processCause and effectMutual simultaneous shaping of factorsStatic design – categories isolated before studyEmerging design – categories identified during research processGeneralization leading to prediction, explanation, and understandingPatterns, theories developed for understandingAccurate and reliable through validity and reliabilityAccurate and reliable through verification
16 Assumptions of qualitative designs Qualitative researchers are concerned primarily with process, rather than outcomes or products.Qualitative researchers are interested in meaning.The qualitative researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. Data are mediated through this human instrument, rather than through questionnaires, or machines.Qualitative research involves fieldwork. The researcher physically goes to the people setting, site, or institution to observe or record behavior in its natural setting.Qualitative research is descriptive in that the researcher is interested in process, meaning and understanding gained through words or pictures.The process of qualitative research is inductive in that the researcher builds abstractions, concepts, hypotheses, and theories from details.
17 Assumptions of qualitative designs The nature of reality: multiple, constructed and holisticThe relationship of knower to known: interactive, inseparable.Generalization: a “working hypothesis” that describes a single caseCausal linkages: mutual simultaneous shaping.Inquiry is value bound.
18 When to use qualitative research For problems that need explorationFor problems that need a complex detailed understanding.To write in styles that push the limits of formal academic narrativesTo understand contextsThe topic has been researched for a long time in the same wayThe topic is new to researchYou would like in-depth information that may be difficult to convey quantitatively
19 Qual Data Collection Methods InterviewsFocus groupsParticipant observation (field notes)VideoText and Image analysis (documents, media data)
20 Assumptions of quantitative designs Quan: what, where, and when of natural phenomenadevelop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses related to natural phenomenaInvolve large samples of subjects; deal with cause/effectAssociated with positivism: that objective truth can be known with certainty, that it can be gained through rational methods
21 PositivismA single, tangible reality "out there" that can be broken apart into pieces capable of being studied independentlyThe separation of the observer from the observedWhat is true at one time and place will also be true at another time and placeAn assumption of linear causality; there are no effects without causes and no causes without effectsThe results of an inquiry are essentially free from beliefs, interpretations
23 Quantitative concerns Useful in areas like user demographics, patterns of use; BUT:Can produce a false sense of certaintyTakes the subject outside of natural setting/tasksQuantifies unquantifiable phenomenon
24 Choice of Methodology & Methods Depends onResearch QuestionsResearch GoalsResearcher Beliefs and ValuesResearcher SkillsTime and Funds
25 ReferencesCornford, T. and Smithson, S. (1996). Project Research in Information Systems. A Student’s Guide. Macmillan. London.Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp.1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.