Presentation on theme: "Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August1 This paper aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework for urban greening of Beijing Province ・・・・・ an urban greening."— Presentation transcript:
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August1 This paper aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework for urban greening of Beijing Province ・・・・・ an urban greening plan ・・・ to achieve long-term sustainability. At the regional level, a big natural and semi-natural forest area in the northwest and an ecological buffer belt in the southeast are planned to protect the environmental quality of Beijing and provide habitats for wildlife. At the city level, a green network system of green wedges, parks and green corridors has been proposed. At the neighborhood level, green extensions and connections of riverside greenway, road greenway, parks and vertical greening permeate into the built-up areas..
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August2 Green space planning in the development of a city in china has been thought as a important process after European and American influence Environmental and ecological city concept is a typical example and master plans have been prepared for every city in which “Spot-Linear-Spatial” concept was a fundamental principle Planning theory to allocate green wedges in large city is a main trend today, and it is obvious to do in Mega Cities
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6 Well,the most important practical problem of Network Theory is to connect a certain object with something What, how it is, where it is, when it is connected ？ This is a practical problem of connectivity
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August7 “Connectivity” in urban rivers: Conflict and convergence between ecology and design Rachel May, a, a Office of Environment and Society, Syracuse University, 431 Crouse-Hinds, Syracuse, NY 13244, USAMay a
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August8 Two approaches of Connectivity １： Bio-physical approach ２： Cultural and design approach ex: river front design by urban planner ・ access from down town ・ connection with visual and conceptual river Green way, parks, river side spots 例：Ｂａｆｆａｌｏ Ｂａｙｏｕ Ｍａｓｔｅｒ Ｐｌａｎ land connectivity urban connectivity with spatial network social connectivity
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August9 At all these different scales, connectivity “may be defined as the ease with which organisms, matter or energy traverse the ecotones between adjacent ecological units” . By this definition, the highest degree of landscape and habitat connectivity in a riparian system would be achieved by periodic flooding alternating with dry periods. Such a pattern would share nutrients among aquatic and terrestrial habitats and create transition zones that would favor a diverse array of amphibious species and wetland plants. Defining connectivity—biophysical approaches
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August10 Defining connectivity— cultural and design approaches For urban planners concerned with riverfronts, the main issues are making the river accessible to people from the most densely used or occupied parts of the city (pedestrian paths and bridges, transit linkages),
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August11 linking the river visually and conceptually to the city (greenways, parks, attractive riverfront destinations, integrated design elements, vista points, identifiable images and logos), and providing social and cultural attractions along the riverfront. ・・・ for land connectivity, for urban connectivity through space networks and centers, and social connectivity through lively and interactive gathering places, both built and natural”
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August12 famous urban riverfronts of the world, such as those in Amsterdam, St. Petersburg or San Antonio, Texas. From the ecological perspective, these are poor models, being entirely artificial constructions based on channelized riverbeds, in which the hydrology and ecology of the original river have been altered to suit the economic and aesthetic values of the city. When ecological connections are made in these places, the context is usually negative, as with the floods and outbreaks of water-borne diseases in St. Petersburg and the annual need to drain the “river” in San Antonio to dredge out the mud.
Cont’d Furthermore, as the authors of the definitive report on “Ecological Riverfront Design” from the advocacy organization American Rivers point out, each urban river is a unique place with a unique conjunction of ecological and cultural demands, and models from one city do not readily adapt to another . Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August13
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August14 Connecting the connectivity: a cognitive approach Pedagogical restoration plans Riverfront museums “ Eco-revelatory” design
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August15 Net work, what ？
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August16 Ecological networks: A spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes Paul Opdam,, Eveliene Steingröver and Sabine van Rooij Alterra, Landscape group, Wageningen University Research Center, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August17 Strong power to realize philosophy and concept to connect something with some other
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August18 There have been so many proposals on networks In the past, but,…………….?
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August19 TOWARDS A GREEN STRATEGY FOR LONDON STRATEGIC OPEN SPACE AND GREEN CHAINS Summary of a report by Tom Turner to the London Planning Advisory Committee, May 1991
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August20 Fig. 3. The first planned open spaces in London were the residential squares, as represented by Diagram A. The 1944 Abercrombie plan recommended a park system (Diagram B). The Greater London Development Plan proposed a hierarchy of parks of different sizes (Diagram C). The present proposal is that urban squares, public parks and riverside walks should be interconnected to form a green web, by means of civic walks, green chain walks, pedestrian streets and countryside walks (Diagram D). (Diagrams reproduced from Turner, T., Landscape Planning, (1987) by courtesy of Hutchinson Education). Fig. 4. London could have a network of Ecological Corridors. They would be based on parks, cemeteries, woods, hedgerows, the River Thames and its tributaries, canals, railways and other lines of opportunity, and would be accessible to the public only in part.
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August21 The existing pattern of long-distance walkways could be extended to create a Greenspace Web for pedestrians The London Cycling Campaign has proposed a 1,000 mile Strategic Cycle Route Network for London.
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August22 Green chains can be linked to pedestrianised shopping streets, business malls and shopping malls, so that they become environmental improvement corridors and spread their influence throughout the city.
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August23 Green chains can be linked to pedestrianised shopping streets, business malls and shopping malls, so that they become environmental improvement corridors and spread their influence throughout the city.
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August24 Every practical implementation Has started from London’s Green Belt
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August25 What is power ？ Power to implement Ｌｉｖｅａｂｌｅ Ｃｏｍｍｕｎｉｔｙ
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August26 Compact Sustainable Community is a fundamental concept for a grand trial for structure of Green Space Network
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Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August28 The reason why differences like this appear is only one Compact building is possible in a local city where market- mechanism is out of question Green space and open space is properly managed in the community Residential pattern with population density of 75/ha Which is the most sustainable one? Which is to be chosen/ This will make the green pattern and its existence.
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August29 New strategic development in London GREEN GRID-Thames Gateway New London Plan Strategy for Green space network Regional management system by green space community And ground work project
Yoritaka Tashiro/2010, August30 Example planning: Thames Gateway, its principle New vegetation must be introduced prior to construction to establish Ｇ green Framework