Presentation on theme: "Arc Welding Basics SECTION OVERVIEW:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Arc Welding Basics SECTION OVERVIEW: Section Overviews are provided on the introductory slides at the front of each topical area to explain the intended use for the slides included in the section.Slide numbers are included on the Section Overview slides for easy reference when preparing for delivery of the slide content.TEACHER NOTES:Teacher Notes are included on the Section Overview slides as a reference tool when making class preparations.Suggested Activities are included for teachers to use to help students gain practical experience with the welding content. However, these are designed to be supplemented by each teacher based on local program needs.Slides have been developed to incorporate content information regarding performance standards from the American Welding Society (AWS) and the National Academic Standards for English, Science, and Math.
2 Unit Topics Topics included in this overview are: Introduction What is Arc Welding?Why is Welding Important?Why Learn to Weld?Careers in WeldingThe American WeldingSociety (AWS)Welding SafetyBasic ElectricityWelding FundamentalsWelding CertificationSECTION OVERVIEW:This slide is meant to start generating conversation and thoughts about content to be covered in this lesson.TEACHER NOTES:Bulleted information on topical areas is provided to lead class discussion on areas which are to be covered in the training.
3 ObjectivesUpon successful completion of this unit of study, you will be able to …Identify definitions and terminology associated with weldingDemonstrate safe working habits in the welding environmentName the parts and types of welds and weld jointsInterpret basic welding symbol informationIdentify opportunities available to weldersSECTION OVERVIEW:This slide is included to explain the objectives of this unit of study.TEACHER NOTES:Teachers could use this opportunity to give a high-level overview of the importance and application of welding in today’s society.
4 Introduction SECTION OVERVIEW: These slides are to serve as an opener for discussions about the basics of arc welding.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 4-9: Slides are provided for teachers to use to help students learn about the basics of arc welding.Slide content is designed to serve only as a framework for class discussions and should be supplemented with additional materials based on local program needs.The American Welding SocietyContact you local chapterStudent memberships availableYou do not need to be a member to attend a chapter meeting.Find out more at
5 Arc welding is most commonly used to join two pieces of metal What is Arc Welding?Arc welding is most commonly used to join two pieces of metalThe welder creates an electric arc that melts the base metals and filler metal (consumable) together so that they all fuse into one solid piece of metalSteel Pipe – Tack WeldedFinal weld after several beads are madeRoot Pass or “Stringer Bead”
6 Why is Welding Important? Many things around us are welded …Pipelines that bring fresh waterTowers that carry electricity to housesCars and buses that take people where they need to go
7 Welding is so HOT …. it’s COOL! Why Learn to Weld?Welding is so HOT …. it’s COOL!Welding can help build a successful career so you can get the things you want in lifeSkilled welders are in demand – people use things that are welded everyday!Welding can be fun and safeIt is challenging and high-tech
8 Basic Steps of Arc Welding Prepare the base materials: remove paint and rustChoose the right welding processChoose the right filler materialAssess and comply with safety requirementsUse proper welding techniques and be sure to protect the molten puddle from contaminants in the airInspect the weld
9 The American Welding Society Who is the AWS?American Welding SocietyIt is a non-profit organization whose membership includes:IndividualsStudentsCompaniesWhat do they do?Their purpose is to:Advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied processes including: joining, brazing, soldering, cutting, and thermal sprayStandardize classification of electrode and base material codesStandardize process proceduresProvide welding certification
10 Careers in Welding SECTION OVERVIEW: The next few slides discuss: The types of jobs available using weldingWhy welding is importantCareers in weldingTEACHER NOTES:Slides 10-12: Information included on these slides are intended to help students understand:Opportunities available to skilled weldersThat welding provides many opportunities for making moneyAdditional links for more information on careers and the demand for skilled welders:National Association of Manufacturers:2005 Skills Gap Report:Keeping America Competitive:
11 Job opportunities in welding are changing … Careers in WeldingJob opportunities in welding are changing …Welding can be valuable as a job skill or as a full-time jobEngineeringRacingIndustrial SalesFarm Repair and FabricationProduction WeldingMilitaryTeachingMaintenanceRoboticsIronworker/ Skilled TradesAuto TechnicianArtistMetal SculptingOwning Your Own BusinessFor more information on welding careers, please see the e-learning introduction
12 How Much Money Can You Make? Recent statistics show that some welding jobs pay $25.00 per hour- If you worked five days a week for one year, how much money would you make?83% of people with welding jobs were offered medical benefits- Higher than any other work sector except governmentFor more information on welding statistics, please log on to
13 Application Activity SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slide is meant as a visual for a group activity.TEACHER NOTES: (Explanation of Activity)Arrange the participants into pairs.Explain that this activity is meant to be an energizer activity that gets them thinking about their future.Have participants work in teams on the computers to research career information.Give the groups at least 60 minutes to find career-related information.At the end of the 60 minutes, ask the students to tell how welding wages and benefits compare with other career fields.Please Note: Other resources not mentioned on the slide which can be used as references include: the website for Ironworkers, Boilermakers, other skilled trades, local colleges, and Department of Commerce.PLEASE NOTE: If students do not have access to the Internet, hard copies of this activity can be used along with additional supplemental career information.
14 Application Activity America's Job Bank (http://www.ajb.dni.us) Classifieds Employment (Yahoo! Careers ( MONSTER.COM ( (CareerBuilder (Let’s explore some career possibilities in weldingPlease log on to a computerWorking with a team member, research the websites to the right and explore information about welding careersIn 60 minutes, be prepared to answer the following questions:What careers in welding interest you the most?How can welding be high tech?How much money can be made annually in this chosen career field?Where can you get a job in welding and what are the basic requirements?What are some job advancement opportunities available in the welding industry?
15 Welding Safety SECTION OVERVIEW: The next few slides identify safety requirements when welding.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 15-27: Bulleted information on topical areas is provided to lead class discussion on important areas of safety in the welding environment.Use this time to discuss OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)OSHA -Regulation 1910 – Occupational Safety and Health Standards for general industryTell the students where all the information listed on the following slides can be found.MSDS – Quick Links: MSDS or callSee slide 20 for additional website linksSee Facilitator’s Guide for more information on welding hazards such as Fumes and Gases and Electrical Shock.For a free DVD on Welding Safely, submit the order form found in the back of the Lesson Plan Facilitator’s Guide (shipping and handling charges will apply).
16 Arc Welding SafetyWelding can be safe when sufficient measures are taken to protect yourself and others from potential hazardsStudents should read and understand the following before welding:Warning LabelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Students should also be familiar with the following information‘Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1)Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)
17 Understand and follow all warning labels found: On welding equipmentWith all consumable packagingWithin instruction manuals
18 Material Safety Data Sheets Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are:Required by law and OSHACreated by the manufacturer of a product per OSHA guidelinesDesigned to inform usersShipped with every box of Lincoln Electric consumable productAvailable free online at:front
19 MSDS outlines a product’s: MSDS - ContinuedMSDS outlines a product’s:Identity and compositionPotential hazardsSafe useHandling informationManufacturer contact informationback
20 ANSI Z49.1ANSI Z49.1: Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied ProcessesA safety document published by the American Welding Society that covers safe practices in the welding environmentTo get your free copy, go to:E205: Arc Welding SafetyA safety document summarizing many of the hazards and safe practices for weldingDownload and print your own copy at:Free copies available from Lincoln Electric at:Access the E-learning
21 Protect yourself and others from potential hazards including: Arc Welding SafetyProtect yourself and others from potential hazards including:Fumes and GasesElectric ShockArc RaysFire and Explosion HazardsNoiseHot objects
22 Fumes and Gases Fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health Keep your head out of the fumesUse enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general areaSee product labeling and MSDS for ventilation and respirator requirements
23 Do not make repairs yourself, alert your instructor immediately! Electric ShockElectric shock can killDo not touch live electrical partsPrimary Voltage –230, 460 volt input powerSecondary Voltage – 6 to 100 volts for weldingInsulate yourself from work and groundFollow all warnings on welding equipmentDo not make repairs yourself, alert your instructor immediately!
24 Arc Rays Arc rays can injure eyes and burn skin The welding arc is brighter than the sunPrecaution must be taken to protect your eyes and skin from UV radiationWear correct eye and body protection
25 Fire and Explosion Hazards Welding sparks can cause fires and explosionsSparks and spatter from the welding arc can spray up to 35 feet from your workFlammable materials should be removed from the welding area or shielded from sparks and spatterHave a fire extinguisher readyInspect area for fires 30 minutes after welding
26 Loud noises can damage your hearing Keep loud noises at a safe level by using proper hearing protection such as:Ear plugsEar muffs
27 Protective Clothing Welders must wear protective clothing for Protection from sparks, spatter and UV radiationInsulation from electric shockProtective clothing includes …Fire-proof clothing without rolled sleeves, cuffs or fraysWork bootsWelding gloves, jackets, bibs, and fire-proof pantsWelding cap, helmet and safety glassesEar protection – ear plugs and muffs
28 Application Activity SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slide is meant as a visual for a group activity.TEACHER NOTES: (Explanation of Activity)Explain that this activity is meant to be a check and balance activity to ensure that each understands safe work practices.Work in groups to identify possible safety hazardsDemonstrate the use of proper safety precautions byReading and following warningsUsing proper protective clothingInspecting welding areasOther application activity ideas:Read and explain an MSDSReference ‘Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1)Reference Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)Read and explain a warning label on a package of electrodeRead and explain a warning label on a welding power source
29 Application Activity TIME TO PRACTICE Go out to the lab Demonstrate the use of proper safety precautions such as:Reading warningsUsing proper protective clothingEquipment inspectionKeeping your head out of the fumeProper ventilation
30 Basic Electricity and Welding SECTION OVERVIEW:The next slides are meant to explain basic electricity and its relationship to arc welding.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 30-32: Bulleted information on topical area is provided to lead class discussion on the importance of electricity in arc welding processes.
31 The Arc Welding Circuit The electricity flows from the power source, through the electrode and across the arc, through the base material to the work lead and back to the power source
32 Basic ElectricityDC -Voltage – The electrical potential or pressure that causes current to flowMeasured in VoltsCurrent – The movement of charged particles in a specific directionMeasured in AmpsPolarityDC- (Direct Current Electrode Negative)DC+ (Direct Current Electrode Positive)AC (Alternating Current)DC+AC
33 Math Terms and Welding SECTION OVERVIEW: The next few slides are intended to help students connect welding with math applications needed in the work world.TEACHER NOTES:Slide 33-34: This slide contains information to help clarify how several math terms apply to welding.
34 Math Terms in WeldingBelieve it or not, a lot of math is used in weldingIPM Travel Speed = Inches per Minute Travel SpeedThe speed the electrode moves along the base materialIPM Wire Feed Speed= Inches per Minute Wire Feed SpeedThe speed at which the wire is fed during wire weldingLbs/hr = Pounds per HourElectrode deposition rateCFH= Cubic Feet per HourShielding gas flow rate (wire welding)PSI= Pounds per Square InchTensile strength of a material and the pressure in gas cylindersL = LegFillet size measurement% = percentShielding gas mixture composition
35 Metals SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides are intended to help students understand the specifics about technical aspects associated with welding. Included is information on:Common metals that can be weldedSheet metal gaugesTEACHER NOTES:Slides 35-37: These slides contain information about common types of metals, their weldability and gauge sizes. This information can help students visualize the concepts discussed on the slides.
36 Can All Metals Be Welded? Most metals can be welded, but not allThe three most common weldable metals include:Mild Steel - inexpensive and strongStainless Steel – does not rustAluminum – does not rust and is light weightMild steelAluminumStainless Steel
37 16 gauge = .051” 14 gauge = .064” 12 gauge = .081” 10 gauge = .102” Material thickness is sometimes measured by gauge from 36 (.004 in) to 3 (.2391 in)For example, steel gauge and measurement in inches:16 gauge = .051” gauge = .064” gauge = .081” gauge = .102”PLEASE NOTE: As the gauge number gets smaller … the material thickness gets larger.
38 Types of Joints SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slide is intended to help students learn about the various types of joints that can be used with welding. Information includes:Types of jointsTEACHER NOTES:Slide 38-39: Examples of various types of joints are provided to help students visualize the concepts discussed on this slide.
40 Parts of a Weld SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides are intended to help students develop an understanding of the parts of a weld and of fillet weld inspectionTEACHER NOTES:Slides 41-43: Examples of various types of welds are provided to help students visualize the concepts discussed.Common terms and definitions applied to fillet and groove welds:Fillet Weld: Triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner jointGroove Weld: A weld made in the groove between work pieces.Fillet Weld Leg: Distance from the joint root to toe of fillet weldWeld Toe: Junction of weld face and base metalWeld Face: Exposed surface on side where welding was doneWeld Root: Point at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal surfaceActual Throat: Shortest distance between weld root and face of fillet weldNotice the term ‘convex’ in Slide 43. Define for the class and give examples.To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to (Winter 2006)
41 Parts of a WeldHeat Affected ZoneJoint and Weld
42 Fillet and Groove Welds Groove and fillet welds can be made on many types of joints
43 Fillet Weld Inspection Fillet welds should:Have a flat to slightly convex faceBe uniform in appearanceHave equal leg sizeHave good wash-in into base materialsThis is an example of a good fillet weld:
44 Welding Symbols SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides are intended to help students learn about welding symbolsTEACHER NOTES:Slides 44-46: These slides show some examples of actual welding symbols which can help students more easily grasp the concepts discussed.For more information on welding symbols, see “How to Read Shop Drawings” available for purchase from the James F. Lincoln Foundation (To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to (Winter 2006)
45 What are Welding Symbols? Welding symbols give the welder specific instructions about the weld including:PlacementSizeLengthProcessAny other special notesWelding symbols areUniversally usedGoverned by the AWSFound on engineering drawings“How to Read Shop Drawings” available at
46 Welding symbols contain information about the weld to be made S – leg dimension of the weldTriangle – the weld is to be made on the arrow side of this jointTail – any additional information required (i.e. position the weld is to be made)Arrow - the joint the welding symbol applies to
47 Welding Positions SECTION OVERVIEW: This next slide is intended to help students learn about welding positions.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 47-48: Show examples of welding positions to help students more easily grasp the concepts discussed in this section.To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to )
48 What are Welding Positions? There are various positions that a weld can be made in:
49 Welder Responsibilities SECTION OVERVIEW:The next few slides reference information extracted from the ‘Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel, Entry Level Welder’ (AWS EG 2.0) booklet to help students understand about the responsibilities of a welder.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 49-55: These slides include bulleted information on topical areas to lead class discussion on the importance of each area when conducting the welding processes.‘Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel, Entry Level Welder’ (AWS EG 2.0) book available through the AWS. (For more information on Lincoln Electric's Welding Educator’s Workshop see the Technical Training Guide (ED122):
50 What are the Responsibilities of a Welder? Welders have many areas of important responsibilitiesThese relate to:Arc Welding SafetyKnowledge – ContentAttitude – ReactionsSkills – PerformanceWork Habits – Daily FunctionsAlways keep safety in mind when welding
51 A welder MUST always follow safe work practices: Arc Welding SafetyA welder MUST always follow safe work practices:Students should read and understand the following before welding:Warning LabelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Students should also be familiar with the following information‘Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1)Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)
52 Welding can teach you about…. Knowledge - ContentWelding can teach you about….Science when applying metallurgy, chemistry, electricity, etc.Math when calculating angles, joint design, and weld sizeEnglish when communicating and interpreting drawings, codes, and proceduresTechnical areas when performing the actual welding applicationsHow much science and math went into the development of this bike?
53 AttitudeThe best welders demonstrate a can-do attitude when performing welding processesThis means being able to…Work as a team memberCommunicate ideas to othersListen to opinions of othersPromote a positive attitudeProvide solutions to problemsTake pride in workmanshipThese welders work together to inspect a weld.
54 Skills/PerformanceA welder must demonstrate technical skills when performing welding processesA welder must know how to:Use hand tools and materials, to operate equipment in a safe, accurate, and consistent mannerAcquire and evaluate information needed for problem solvingComplete quality workMaintain equipmentThere is no room for poor workmanship in NASCAR
55 Work Habits/Daily Functions A welder must practice good working habits when performing welding processesThis means being able to …Follow detailed verbal and written instructionsMaintain workspace, equipment, and tool cleanlinessCorrectly fill out, maintain and submit time cards, work assignment cards, and other records as requiredFollow safe working practicesAgriculture teachers brush up on their welding skills at Lincoln Electric’s Welding Educator’s Workshop
56 Welding Certification SECTION OVERVIEW:The next slides discuss the basics of the certification process.TEACHER NOTES:Slide : Bulleted information on topical area is provided to lead class discussion on certification possibilities.
57 Welding Certification What is a welding certification?Welding certifications are used to test a welder’s knowledge and welding skillCertifications are available for many different processes, materials, and positions.Who certifies welders?Certification programs are offered by many different types of organizations:CompaniesSkilled TradesMilitaryShip BuildersPipelinesThe American Welding Society
58 Welding Certification How can you become certified?Certification testing is available at testing facilities all over the United StatesThe AWS offers many certifications including: welders, welding inspectors, and welding educatorsWhat is the value of a welding certification?A welding certification proves that you have passed a test and are qualified for the jobAs an AWS certified welder your name is kept in a national database which is used to notify you of jobs open in your areaIt is a source of accomplishment and pride
59 English, Math, and Science Connection SECTION OVERVIEW:The next slides discuss how the content covered in the welding unit is applicable to English, Math, and Science classes.TEACHER NOTES:Slides 59-61: These slides contain information regarding how this welding unit of study relates to the National Academic Standards.
60 English, Math, and Science Connection Many of the same concepts you learn in other classes are practiced in welding. In what other classes might you study the following terms?75/25 – gas mixtureVoltsAmpsDegree/hr – cooling rateIn/minAngles/degreesMetallurgyFillet sizeCurrentTensionCompressionTensile strengthYieldBlueprintsDepth/width ratioPreheat temperatureCubic feet per hour
61 National Academic Standards Crosswalk The unit just completed has covered parts of academic content listed in the National Academic Standards as follows:NM-PROB.CONN.PK-12.3: Recognizes and applies mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.NLA-STANDARD 1: Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process.NLA-STANDARD 7: Uses reading skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of informational texts.NS-PHYSICAL SCIENCE: (Experiences) interactions of energy and matter.