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Arc Welding Basics SECTION OVERVIEW:

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1 Arc Welding Basics SECTION OVERVIEW:
Section Overviews are provided on the introductory slides at the front of each topical area to explain the intended use for the slides included in the section. Slide numbers are included on the Section Overview slides for easy reference when preparing for delivery of the slide content. TEACHER NOTES: Teacher Notes are included on the Section Overview slides as a reference tool when making class preparations. Suggested Activities are included for teachers to use to help students gain practical experience with the welding content. However, these are designed to be supplemented by each teacher based on local program needs. Slides have been developed to incorporate content information regarding performance standards from the American Welding Society (AWS) and the National Academic Standards for English, Science, and Math.

2 Unit Topics Topics included in this overview are: Introduction
What is Arc Welding? Why is Welding Important? Why Learn to Weld? Careers in Welding The American Welding Society (AWS) Welding Safety Basic Electricity Welding Fundamentals Welding Certification SECTION OVERVIEW: This slide is meant to start generating conversation and thoughts about content to be covered in this lesson. TEACHER NOTES: Bulleted information on topical areas is provided to lead class discussion on areas which are to be covered in the training.

3 Objectives Upon successful completion of this unit of study, you will be able to … Identify definitions and terminology associated with welding Demonstrate safe working habits in the welding environment Name the parts and types of welds and weld joints Interpret basic welding symbol information Identify opportunities available to welders SECTION OVERVIEW: This slide is included to explain the objectives of this unit of study. TEACHER NOTES: Teachers could use this opportunity to give a high-level overview of the importance and application of welding in today’s society.

4 Introduction SECTION OVERVIEW:
These slides are to serve as an opener for discussions about the basics of arc welding. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 4-9: Slides are provided for teachers to use to help students learn about the basics of arc welding. Slide content is designed to serve only as a framework for class discussions and should be supplemented with additional materials based on local program needs. The American Welding Society Contact you local chapter Student memberships available You do not need to be a member to attend a chapter meeting. Find out more at

5 Arc welding is most commonly used to join two pieces of metal
What is Arc Welding? Arc welding is most commonly used to join two pieces of metal The welder creates an electric arc that melts the base metals and filler metal (consumable) together so that they all fuse into one solid piece of metal Steel Pipe – Tack Welded Final weld after several beads are made Root Pass or “Stringer Bead”

6 Why is Welding Important?
Many things around us are welded … Pipelines that bring fresh water Towers that carry electricity to houses Cars and buses that take people where they need to go

7 Welding is so HOT …. it’s COOL!
Why Learn to Weld? Welding is so HOT …. it’s COOL! Welding can help build a successful career so you can get the things you want in life Skilled welders are in demand – people use things that are welded everyday! Welding can be fun and safe It is challenging and high-tech

8 Basic Steps of Arc Welding
Prepare the base materials: remove paint and rust Choose the right welding process Choose the right filler material Assess and comply with safety requirements Use proper welding techniques and be sure to protect the molten puddle from contaminants in the air Inspect the weld

9 The American Welding Society
Who is the AWS? American Welding Society It is a non-profit organization whose membership includes: Individuals Students Companies What do they do? Their purpose is to: Advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied processes including: joining, brazing, soldering, cutting, and thermal spray Standardize classification of electrode and base material codes Standardize process procedures Provide welding certification

10 Careers in Welding SECTION OVERVIEW: The next few slides discuss:
The types of jobs available using welding Why welding is important Careers in welding TEACHER NOTES: Slides 10-12: Information included on these slides are intended to help students understand: Opportunities available to skilled welders That welding provides many opportunities for making money Additional links for more information on careers and the demand for skilled welders: National Association of Manufacturers: 2005 Skills Gap Report: Keeping America Competitive:

11 Job opportunities in welding are changing …
Careers in Welding Job opportunities in welding are changing … Welding can be valuable as a job skill or as a full-time job Engineering Racing Industrial Sales Farm Repair and Fabrication Production Welding Military Teaching Maintenance Robotics Ironworker/ Skilled Trades Auto Technician Artist Metal Sculpting Owning Your Own Business For more information on welding careers, please see the e-learning introduction

12 How Much Money Can You Make?
Recent statistics show that some welding jobs pay $25.00 per hour - If you worked five days a week for one year, how much money would you make? 83% of people with welding jobs were offered medical benefits - Higher than any other work sector except government For more information on welding statistics, please log on to

13 Application Activity SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slide is meant as a visual for a group activity. TEACHER NOTES: (Explanation of Activity) Arrange the participants into pairs. Explain that this activity is meant to be an energizer activity that gets them thinking about their future. Have participants work in teams on the computers to research career information. Give the groups at least 60 minutes to find career-related information. At the end of the 60 minutes, ask the students to tell how welding wages and benefits compare with other career fields. Please Note: Other resources not mentioned on the slide which can be used as references include: the website for Ironworkers, Boilermakers, other skilled trades, local colleges, and Department of Commerce. PLEASE NOTE: If students do not have access to the Internet, hard copies of this activity can be used along with additional supplemental career information.

14 Application Activity America's Job Bank (http://www.ajb.dni.us)
Classifieds Employment (http://www.classifieds2000.com) Yahoo! Careers (http://careers.yahoo.com/)   MONSTER.COM (http://www.monster.com) (http://nccer.monster.com) CareerBuilder (http://www.careerbuilder.com) Let’s explore some career possibilities in welding Please log on to a computer Working with a team member, research the websites to the right and explore information about welding careers In 60 minutes, be prepared to answer the following questions: What careers in welding interest you the most? How can welding be high tech? How much money can be made annually in this chosen career field? Where can you get a job in welding and what are the basic requirements? What are some job advancement opportunities available in the welding industry?

15 Welding Safety SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next few slides identify safety requirements when welding. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 15-27: Bulleted information on topical areas is provided to lead class discussion on important areas of safety in the welding environment. Use this time to discuss OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) OSHA - Regulation 1910 – Occupational Safety and Health Standards for general industry Tell the students where all the information listed on the following slides can be found. MSDS – Quick Links: MSDS or call See slide 20 for additional website links See Facilitator’s Guide for more information on welding hazards such as Fumes and Gases and Electrical Shock. For a free DVD on Welding Safely, submit the order form found in the back of the Lesson Plan Facilitator’s Guide (shipping and handling charges will apply).

16 Arc Welding Safety Welding can be safe when sufficient measures are taken to protect yourself and others from potential hazards Students should read and understand the following before welding: Warning Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Students should also be familiar with the following information ‘Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1) Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)

17 Understand and follow all warning labels found:
On welding equipment With all consumable packaging Within instruction manuals

18 Material Safety Data Sheets
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are: Required by law and OSHA Created by the manufacturer of a product per OSHA guidelines Designed to inform users Shipped with every box of Lincoln Electric consumable product Available free online at: front

19 MSDS outlines a product’s:
MSDS - Continued MSDS outlines a product’s: Identity and composition Potential hazards Safe use Handling information Manufacturer contact information back

20 ANSI Z49.1 ANSI Z49.1: Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes A safety document published by the American Welding Society that covers safe practices in the welding environment To get your free copy, go to: E205: Arc Welding Safety A safety document summarizing many of the hazards and safe practices for welding Download and print your own copy at: Free copies available from Lincoln Electric at: Access the E-learning

21 Protect yourself and others from potential hazards including:
Arc Welding Safety Protect yourself and others from potential hazards including: Fumes and Gases Electric Shock Arc Rays Fire and Explosion Hazards Noise Hot objects

22 Fumes and Gases Fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health
Keep your head out of the fumes Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area See product labeling and MSDS for ventilation and respirator requirements

23 Do not make repairs yourself, alert your instructor immediately!
Electric Shock Electric shock can kill Do not touch live electrical parts Primary Voltage –230, 460 volt input power Secondary Voltage – 6 to 100 volts for welding Insulate yourself from work and ground Follow all warnings on welding equipment Do not make repairs yourself, alert your instructor immediately!

24 Arc Rays Arc rays can injure eyes and burn skin
The welding arc is brighter than the sun Precaution must be taken to protect your eyes and skin from UV radiation Wear correct eye and body protection

25 Fire and Explosion Hazards
Welding sparks can cause fires and explosions Sparks and spatter from the welding arc can spray up to 35 feet from your work Flammable materials should be removed from the welding area or shielded from sparks and spatter Have a fire extinguisher ready Inspect area for fires 30 minutes after welding

26 Loud noises can damage your hearing
Keep loud noises at a safe level by using proper hearing protection such as: Ear plugs Ear muffs

27 Protective Clothing Welders must wear protective clothing for
Protection from sparks, spatter and UV radiation Insulation from electric shock Protective clothing includes … Fire-proof clothing without rolled sleeves, cuffs or frays Work boots Welding gloves, jackets, bibs, and fire-proof pants Welding cap, helmet and safety glasses Ear protection – ear plugs and muffs

28 Application Activity SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slide is meant as a visual for a group activity. TEACHER NOTES: (Explanation of Activity) Explain that this activity is meant to be a check and balance activity to ensure that each understands safe work practices. Work in groups to identify possible safety hazards Demonstrate the use of proper safety precautions by Reading and following warnings Using proper protective clothing Inspecting welding areas Other application activity ideas: Read and explain an MSDS Reference ‘Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1) Reference Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205) Read and explain a warning label on a package of electrode Read and explain a warning label on a welding power source

29 Application Activity TIME TO PRACTICE Go out to the lab
Demonstrate the use of proper safety precautions such as: Reading warnings Using proper protective clothing Equipment inspection Keeping your head out of the fume Proper ventilation

30 Basic Electricity and Welding
SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides are meant to explain basic electricity and its relationship to arc welding. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 30-32: Bulleted information on topical area is provided to lead class discussion on the importance of electricity in arc welding processes.

31 The Arc Welding Circuit
The electricity flows from the power source, through the electrode and across the arc, through the base material to the work lead and back to the power source

32 Basic Electricity DC - Voltage – The electrical potential or pressure that causes current to flow Measured in Volts Current – The movement of charged particles in a specific direction Measured in Amps Polarity DC- (Direct Current Electrode Negative) DC+ (Direct Current Electrode Positive) AC (Alternating Current) DC+ AC

33 Math Terms and Welding SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next few slides are intended to help students connect welding with math applications needed in the work world. TEACHER NOTES: Slide 33-34: This slide contains information to help clarify how several math terms apply to welding.

34 Math Terms in Welding Believe it or not, a lot of math is used in welding IPM Travel Speed = Inches per Minute Travel Speed The speed the electrode moves along the base material IPM Wire Feed Speed= Inches per Minute Wire Feed Speed The speed at which the wire is fed during wire welding Lbs/hr = Pounds per Hour Electrode deposition rate CFH= Cubic Feet per Hour Shielding gas flow rate (wire welding) PSI= Pounds per Square Inch Tensile strength of a material and the pressure in gas cylinders L = Leg Fillet size measurement % = percent Shielding gas mixture composition

35 Metals SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slides are intended to help students understand the specifics about technical aspects associated with welding. Included is information on: Common metals that can be welded Sheet metal gauges TEACHER NOTES: Slides 35-37: These slides contain information about common types of metals, their weldability and gauge sizes. This information can help students visualize the concepts discussed on the slides.

36 Can All Metals Be Welded?
Most metals can be welded, but not all The three most common weldable metals include: Mild Steel - inexpensive and strong Stainless Steel – does not rust Aluminum – does not rust and is light weight Mild steel Aluminum Stainless Steel

37 16 gauge = .051” 14 gauge = .064” 12 gauge = .081” 10 gauge = .102”
Material thickness is sometimes measured by gauge from 36 (.004 in) to 3 (.2391 in) For example, steel gauge and measurement in inches: 16 gauge = .051” gauge = .064” gauge = .081” gauge = .102” PLEASE NOTE: As the gauge number gets smaller … the material thickness gets larger.

38 Types of Joints SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slide is intended to help students learn about the various types of joints that can be used with welding. Information includes: Types of joints TEACHER NOTES: Slide 38-39: Examples of various types of joints are provided to help students visualize the concepts discussed on this slide.

39 Types of Joints There are 5 types of joints …

40 Parts of a Weld SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slides are intended to help students develop an understanding of the parts of a weld and of fillet weld inspection TEACHER NOTES: Slides 41-43: Examples of various types of welds are provided to help students visualize the concepts discussed. Common terms and definitions applied to fillet and groove welds: Fillet Weld: Triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint Groove Weld: A weld made in the groove between work pieces. Fillet Weld Leg: Distance from the joint root to toe of fillet weld Weld Toe: Junction of weld face and base metal Weld Face: Exposed surface on side where welding was done Weld Root: Point at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal surface Actual Throat: Shortest distance between weld root and face of fillet weld Notice the term ‘convex’ in Slide 43. Define for the class and give examples. To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to (Winter 2006)

41 Parts of a Weld Heat Affected Zone Joint and Weld

42 Fillet and Groove Welds
Groove and fillet welds can be made on many types of joints

43 Fillet Weld Inspection
Fillet welds should: Have a flat to slightly convex face Be uniform in appearance Have equal leg size Have good wash-in into base materials This is an example of a good fillet weld:

44 Welding Symbols SECTION OVERVIEW:
The next slides are intended to help students learn about welding symbols TEACHER NOTES: Slides 44-46: These slides show some examples of actual welding symbols which can help students more easily grasp the concepts discussed. For more information on welding symbols, see “How to Read Shop Drawings” available for purchase from the James F. Lincoln Foundation (www.jflf.org) To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to (Winter 2006)

45 What are Welding Symbols?
Welding symbols give the welder specific instructions about the weld including: Placement Size Length Process Any other special notes Welding symbols are Universally used Governed by the AWS Found on engineering drawings “How to Read Shop Drawings” available at

46 Welding symbols contain information about the weld to be made
S – leg dimension of the weld Triangle – the weld is to be made on the arrow side of this joint Tail – any additional information required (i.e. position the weld is to be made) Arrow - the joint the welding symbol applies to

47 Welding Positions SECTION OVERVIEW:
This next slide is intended to help students learn about welding positions. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 47-48: Show examples of welding positions to help students more easily grasp the concepts discussed in this section. To order free posters on the parts of a weld, types of joints, positions and welding symbols go to 2006)

48 What are Welding Positions?
There are various positions that a weld can be made in:

49 Welder Responsibilities
SECTION OVERVIEW: The next few slides reference information extracted from the ‘Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel, Entry Level Welder’ (AWS EG 2.0) booklet to help students understand about the responsibilities of a welder. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 49-55: These slides include bulleted information on topical areas to lead class discussion on the importance of each area when conducting the welding processes. ‘Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel, Entry Level Welder’ (AWS EG 2.0) book available through the AWS. (www.aws.org) For more information on Lincoln Electric's Welding Educator’s Workshop see the Technical Training Guide (ED122):

50 What are the Responsibilities of a Welder?
Welders have many areas of important responsibilities These relate to: Arc Welding Safety Knowledge – Content Attitude – Reactions Skills – Performance Work Habits – Daily Functions Always keep safety in mind when welding

51 A welder MUST always follow safe work practices:
Arc Welding Safety A welder MUST always follow safe work practices: Students should read and understand the following before welding: Warning Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Students should also be familiar with the following information ‘Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1) Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)

52 Welding can teach you about….
Knowledge - Content Welding can teach you about…. Science when applying metallurgy, chemistry, electricity, etc. Math when calculating angles, joint design, and weld size English when communicating and interpreting drawings, codes, and procedures Technical areas when performing the actual welding applications How much science and math went into the development of this bike?

53 Attitude The best welders demonstrate a can-do attitude when performing welding processes This means being able to… Work as a team member Communicate ideas to others Listen to opinions of others Promote a positive attitude Provide solutions to problems Take pride in workmanship These welders work together to inspect a weld.

54 Skills/Performance A welder must demonstrate technical skills when performing welding processes A welder must know how to: Use hand tools and materials, to operate equipment in a safe, accurate, and consistent manner Acquire and evaluate information needed for problem solving Complete quality work Maintain equipment There is no room for poor workmanship in NASCAR

55 Work Habits/Daily Functions
A welder must practice good working habits when performing welding processes This means being able to … Follow detailed verbal and written instructions Maintain workspace, equipment, and tool cleanliness Correctly fill out, maintain and submit time cards, work assignment cards, and other records as required Follow safe working practices Agriculture teachers brush up on their welding skills at Lincoln Electric’s Welding Educator’s Workshop

56 Welding Certification
SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides discuss the basics of the certification process. TEACHER NOTES: Slide : Bulleted information on topical area is provided to lead class discussion on certification possibilities.

57 Welding Certification
What is a welding certification? Welding certifications are used to test a welder’s knowledge and welding skill Certifications are available for many different processes, materials, and positions. Who certifies welders? Certification programs are offered by many different types of organizations: Companies Skilled Trades Military Ship Builders Pipelines The American Welding Society

58 Welding Certification
How can you become certified? Certification testing is available at testing facilities all over the United States The AWS offers many certifications including: welders, welding inspectors, and welding educators What is the value of a welding certification? A welding certification proves that you have passed a test and are qualified for the job As an AWS certified welder your name is kept in a national database which is used to notify you of jobs open in your area It is a source of accomplishment and pride

59 English, Math, and Science Connection
SECTION OVERVIEW: The next slides discuss how the content covered in the welding unit is applicable to English, Math, and Science classes. TEACHER NOTES: Slides 59-61: These slides contain information regarding how this welding unit of study relates to the National Academic Standards.

60 English, Math, and Science Connection
Many of the same concepts you learn in other classes are practiced in welding. In what other classes might you study the following terms? 75/25 – gas mixture Volts Amps Degree/hr – cooling rate In/min Angles/degrees Metallurgy Fillet size Current Tension Compression Tensile strength Yield Blueprints Depth/width ratio Preheat temperature Cubic feet per hour

61 National Academic Standards Crosswalk
The unit just completed has covered parts of academic content listed in the National Academic Standards as follows: NM-PROB.CONN.PK-12.3: Recognizes and applies mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics. NLA-STANDARD 1: Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process. NLA-STANDARD 7: Uses reading skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of informational texts. NS-PHYSICAL SCIENCE: (Experiences) interactions of energy and matter.


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