Presentation on theme: " Theory: A theory is a general proposition, itself based on observation and logical argument, that states the relationship between observed phenomena."— Presentation transcript:
Theory: A theory is a general proposition, itself based on observation and logical argument, that states the relationship between observed phenomena and seeks either to explain or to predict relation, in so far as this is possible. The main purpose of theory is to make sense of an observed reality and guide the collection and evaluation of evidence
Concept: A concept is a core term in a theory that summarises an important aspect of the problem under study and can be used in collecting and interpreting evidence It requires careful definition
Model: A model is a selective representation in verbal or diagrammatic form of some aspect of the dynamic process of mass communication It can also describe the spatial and temporal relation between elements in a process
It is basically an attempt to explain what we find out from empirical research It is an attempt, a beginning in developing an account of the how and the why leading to what we have observed in our research
But these attempts are not final solutions They are rough drafts, to be revised and revised again in the course of our investigations and in response to further empirical research findings
A good theory has a sense of process where it describes a mechanism by which A makes B happen The process of theorizing begins first with intuition, an awareness of ideas, and the development of hunches about how these ideas are linked The next step is to formalize these hunches into hypotheses, models, or expectations about what goes with what
Thirdly, it is empirical research which allows us to test the hypotheses or the expectations we have about associations A fourth step in theorizing is revising the model or explanation in light of what we have seen in our empirical study.
From these steps, theory emerges as a tool to help us explain, understand, and give meaning to the data we have collected The essence of theorizing is that you start with an observation, and then imagine the observation as the outcome of a (hidden) process.
Dennis McQuail ‘s mass communication theory http://www.ep.liu.se/ej/ijal/2006/v1/i1/a1/ij al06v1i1a1.pdf http://www.ep.liu.se/ej/ijal/2006/v1/i1/a1/ij al06v1i1a1.pdf http://www.analytictech.com/mb313/howto. htm http://www.analytictech.com/mb313/howto. htm