Chapter 1 Science and the Scientific Approach. Science and Common Sense Science and common sense differ sharply in five ways. These disagreements revolve.
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Science and Common Sense Science and common sense differ sharply in five ways. These disagreements revolve around the words systematic and controlled. 1.the use of conceptual schemes and theoretical structures are different. Serious v.s. loose fashion. 2.Scientists systematically and empirically test their theories and hypotheses. Selection tendency 3.Notion of control. Systematically rule out variables that are possible “cause” of the effects under study other than the variables hypothesized to be the “causes.” 4.The scientist is constantly preoccupied with relationships among phenomena. 5.The scientist rules out “metaphysical explanations”
Four Methods of knowing 1.method of tenacity 2.method of authority 3.a priori method/method of intuition 4.method of science: self-correction, objectivity
Science and Its Functions What is science is not easy to answer Three popular stereotypes Two views of science Static view: a body of fact. A way of explaining phenomena. Dynamic view: an heuristic view. Stress problem-solving rather than facts and bodies of information.
Science and Its Functions Sampson’s two views of the science of social psychology. Traditional (Quantitative) v.s. Sociohistorical (Qualitative): Primary goal, Philosophical position, Metaphoric statement, Methodological considerations
The aims of Science, Scientific Explanation, and Theory A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena. Scientists do not really have to be concerned with explanation and understanding. Only prediction and control are necessary.
The aims of Science, Scientific Explanation, and Theory The prediction view of science has validity. The notion of generality is important. Be applied to wider situation. Theories are tentative explanations. Guiding research plan by generating testable hypotheses and organizing facts obtained from the testing of these hypotheses. A good theory is one that cannot fit all observations.
Scientific Research: A Definition Scientific research is systematic, controlled, empirical, amoral, public, and critical investigation of natural phenomena. It is guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed relations among such phenomena. 1.”systematic and controlled” means much confidence in research outcomes. 2.scientific investigation is empirical. If the scientist believes something is so, that belief must somehow or other be put to an outside independent test. 3.knowledge obtained scientifically is not subject to moral evaluation.
The Scientific Approach Dewey (1933/1991): “How We Think”. A special systematized form of all-reflective thinking and inquiry. Problem-Obstacle-Idea: vague and/or unscientific thoughts or unsystematic hunches Hypothesis: a conjectural statement, a tentative proposition about the relation between two or more phenomena or variables. Reasoning-Deduction: the process of moving from a broader picture to a more specific one. Observation-Test-Experiment: the essence of testing a hypothesis is to test the relation expressed by the hypothesis.