2 A brief introduction to GHADEER-E-KHUM incident It is a presentation of Islamic Occasions
3 Scope Background of Ghadeer-e-Khum The urgent revelation Location of Ghadeer-e-KhumHayya Ala Khair-il-AmalWhen & in front of how many Muslims?What happened at Ghadeer-e-KhumHomage to AliContextsQuranic Exegesis (Tafsir):Prophetic Traditions (Hadith):Historical Reports (Tarikh):NarratorsFurther studies / ReferencesQuestions
6 The urgent revelationOn the return journey to Madina, the caravan passed Ghadeer-e-Khum near Al-Johfa.The Holy Prophet (SAW) decided to encamp here.He (SAW) suddenly saw the signs of ‘WAHY’ (divine revelation).The voice of Arch angel ‘Gibrael’ was heard by the Holy Prophet (SWA) saying: Ayat No. 5:67.
9 Location of Ghadeer-e-Khum Ghadeer is on the way from Mecca to Madina.Ghadeer mean a small lake/pond in Arabic, named as Khum. So this place is known as Ghadeer-e-Khum.The Holy Prophet(S.A.W) broke the journey at this lake, which is located 3 miles away from Al-Johfa.He(S.A.W) halted at Ghadeer-e-Khum in midday.Which is a wayside tract of barren land with no shade other than that provided by a few acacia trees.Significant aspect attached to Ghadeer, where all the routes of the different caravans coming from various points of Arabia normally parted.In the course of time, this pond dried up. All traces of water and vegetation vanished. So the name Ghadeer is no longer in use.
12 Hayya Ala Khair-il-Amal On hearing this urgent command, the Holy Prophet (SAW) ordered the place around to be swept.He also ordered Hazrat Bilal ( the Muezzin – caller to prayer ) to recite the ‘Azan’ – call to prayer with the words:“Hayya Ala Khair-il-Amal” meaning O people! Hasten towards the best of deeds.
14 When & in front of how many Muslims? It was the 18th day of Zil Haj – the 10th year after Hijra.In front of between 90,000 to 120,000 Muslims.Those who had gone ahead and those who were still behind. Also those who had begun to depart in different directions.All were recalled to this junction and instructed to assemble in order to hear an important message.It was midday and the weather was exceedingly hot.
16 What happened at Ghadeer ? A shade was arranged for the Holy Prophet (SAW).He (SAW) offered the noon prayers in ‘Jamaat’.Thereafter, He (SAW) delivered the sermon.Tabarani and others have recorded the following tradition as related by Zayd ibn 'Arqam and transmitted through sources unanimously acknowledged to be reliable. Zayd says that the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity, delivered a sermon at Ghadeer-e-Khum under a cloth spread as a canopy on two large trees. He said:
17 "O my people. I am going to be recalled shortly and I must comply "O my people! I am going to be recalled shortly and I must comply. I shall be interrogated and you also shall be interrogated. What will you say then?"The entire audience answered: "We shall bear witness that you did convey to us the message of Allah, and tried your best to guide us on the right path and always gave us good console. May Allah bless you with a good reward."The Holy Prophet proceeded: "Why do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that Paradise is true, Hell is true, Death is true, Resurrection after death is true, that the Day of Judgment will doubtlessly come and that Allah will raise to life the dead from their graves?.“They said: "O Yes! We bear witness to all this."Then Holy Prophet said: “O Allah! You also may witness.“ ‘O my people! Allah is my Mawla and I am mawla of the faithful and I have superior right on and control over their lives. And this Ali is the mawla of all those of whom I am mawla. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him."
19 “O my Lord, be a friend of him who is a friend of Ali, and be an enemy of one who bears enmity to Ali, help him who assists Ali and forsake him who will forsake Ali.”
20 He (SAW) further said: "O my people He (SAW) further said: "O my people! I will precede you and you also shall arrive at the pool of Kawthar. When you shall reach me I shall interrogate you about your behavior towards the two in-valuable assets (thaqalayn) after my death. The major asset is the Book of Allah, the Mighty and Glorious, one end of which is in the hand of Allah, the Exalted, and the other end of which in your hands. Grasp it tightly and do not go astray and do not change or amend it. The other asset is my Progeny, who are my Ahl al-Bayt. Allah the Gracious and Omniscient has informed me that the two will not part from each other before they reach me at the pool.When the ceremony was over, the Arch angel ‘Gibrael’ came and brought Ayat No. 5:3.
21 “…Today have I perfected upon you your religion and completed upon you My blessings and approved for you Islam as your religion...” (Al-Maeda/5:3)
23 Homage to AliAt this moment the Holy Prophet (SAW) pronounced Takbir (i.e., ‘Allaho Akbar’) loudly and then added:“I thank Allah for having perfected His religion and for having completed His favor and for having been pleased with the mastership and succession of Ali after me.”Then He (SAW) stepped down from the platform and said to Ali:“Sit in a tent so that the chiefs and distinguished personalities of Islam may swear oath of allegiance with you and congratulate you”.
24 “Congratulations, O son of Abu Taleb, You become Maula of all believers, men and women.” (Umar Bin Al-Khattab)
26 Prophetic Tradition (Hadiths): Imam Ahmad has recorded the tradition related by Bara' ibn 'Azib in his Musnad, vol.4, p. 281, transmitted through two different sources. Bara' says: "We were with the Messenger of Allah. We alighted at Ghadeer-e-Khum. Congregational prayer was in order. An area under two trees was swept and cleaned for the Messenger of Allah,(Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity). He offered midday prayers and he grasped the hand of 'Ali and said: 'Do you not know that I have superior authority over the lives of the faithful than the faithful themselves?' 'Yes you have,' they replied. He again inquired: 'Do you not know that I have superior right to the life of every believer than the believer himself?' 'Surely, you have,' they answered. Then he grasped the hand of ‘Ali and said: 'Ali is the mawla of all those of whom I am mawla. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him.'" Bara' ibn 'Azib says: "Then 'Umar came to 'Ali and said: 'Congratulations to you the son of Abu Talib. You have become the mawla (master) of all the faithful men and women.'"
28 Historical reports (Tarikh): Here we just like to mention one instance which took place in Kufa during the khilafah of Imam Ali, 25 years after the Prophet's death.At Ali's insistence a large number of people gathered in the plain of Rahbah in Kufah, he addressed them saying: "I administer an oath in the name of Allah to all such Muslims as heard the Holy Prophet(SAW) making a proclamation on the day of Ghadeer-e-Khum, to stand up and testify what they heard him say. Only those who saw the Holy Prophet(SAW) that day with their own eyes and heard the proclamation with their own ears should stand up." Thereupon, thirty companions of the Holy Prophet(SAW), including twelve of those who had participated in the battle of Badr, stood up and witnessed that the Holy Prophet(SAW) grasped his (Ali's) hand and said to the audience: "Do you know that I have a prior right to and superior authority over the souls (i.e., lives) of the faithful than the faithful themselves?" "O yes!" they said. The Holy Prophet(SAW) then said: "He(Ali) is the mawla(i.e., has prior right to and superior authority over the lives) of all those of whom I am mawla. O Allah, love him who loves him (Ali) and hate him who hates him."
29 It is logically impossible that thirty companions might have secretly agreed to speak a unanimous lie. In addition to the thirty witnesses there were other male companions whom enmity with Ali prevented from standing up and giving their evidence as eye-witnesses, like Anas ibn Malik.When Imam Ali said to Anas: "Why do you not stand up and testify what you heard from the messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadeer?" he answered, "O Amir al-Momineen! I have grown old and do not remember." Thereupon Ali said: "May Allah mark you with a white spot (of leprosy) unconcealable with your turban, if you are intentionally withholding the truth." And before Anas got up from his place he bore a large white spot on his face. Thereafter, Anas used to say: "I am under the curse of a righteous slave of Allah.
30 Also bear in mind that this incident took place 25 years after the event of Ghadeer-e-Khum, and during this period hundreds of eyewitnesses had died naturally or in the battles fought during the first two khulafah's rule. Add to this the fact that this incident took place in Kufa which was far from the center of the sahabas, Medina.This incident which took place in Kufa in the year 35 A.H. has itself been narrated by four sahaba and 14 tabi'un and has been recorded in most books of history and tradition.
34 Further studies/references: Al-Ghadeer fi al-kitab wa al-sunnah wa al-adabA book written in Arabic by Allamah 'Abd al-Husayn Ahmad al-'Amini al-Najafi (d AH). Where he gives with full references the names of 110 sahaba of the Prophet and also 84 tabi'un (disciples of the sahaba) who have narrated the hadith of Ghadeer. He has also chronologically given the names of the historians, traditionists, exegetists and poets who have mentioned the hadith of Ghadeer from the first until the fourteenth Islamic century in 11 volumes .Abaqat al-AnwarA book written in Persian by Allama Sayyid Hamid Husayn Musawi Lakhnawi (d AH) of India. Allama Sayyid Hamid Husayn has devoted two bulky volumes (consisting of about 1,080 pages) on the isnad, tawatur and meaning of the hadith of Ghadeer.
36 The Questions What is the urgent revelation? Where is Ghadeer-e-Khum located?What is mean by Ghadeer-e-Khum?What is the significant aspect attached to Ghadeer-e-Khum?Who said: Hayya Ala Khair-il-Amal?When did this historic event happen?What is the order of the following?Who said: Whomsoever I am the master Ali is his master?Who said: Congratulations, O son of Abu Taleb, You become Maula of all believers, men and women?How many people have narratted the Hadith of Ghadeer?
37 The EndVisit the following web sites for answers and more information on the Ghadeer-e-Khum incident