Presentation on theme: "Discovery & Exploration of the New World. Background to Exploration 476 A.D.- 1300 A.D. Middle Ages: Crusades Renaissance mercantilism Tea, spices, silk,"— Presentation transcript:
Discovery & Exploration of the New World
Background to Exploration 476 A.D A.D. Middle Ages: Crusades Renaissance mercantilism Tea, spices, silk, fruits, cotton brought back Europeans want to enter into trade Begin to explore so they have the monopoly of the resources
The World in 1400
The Vikings Came from Norway, Sweden, Denmark Erik the Red- a great Viking discovered Iceland 950- discovered Greenland Leif Erikson discovered Newfoundland and settled it –Not given much credit because did not have a record of settlement
The Life of a Sailor
Where is the ship’s name? If you were a sailor how would you find your ship?
The Captain The captain of the ship needed –funding –manpower –support from a rich benefactor. Most voyages during the fourteenth century were made in the name of the royal ruler of a particular government. The ships that the royal leaders provided were not always new, but the captain took what he was given.
The captain himself was not always an experienced seaman. –Desire for wealth or political favor were often his only motivations for undertaking dangerous voyages. –He could be a merchant, adventurer, soldier, or gentleman of the court. –Under his command were: – the pilot or first mate (who was in charge of navigation) – the crew (who worked the sails and rigging and made repairs to the ship while in uncharted waters).
The Crew The crewmen who signed on to these long and dangerous voyages were not the most experienced seamen large numbers of them were needed –to help man the sails –allow for attrition due to illness and death.
I’m Hungry! In the days of the old wooden sailing ships, food and fresh water was always a problem, therefore feeding a hardworking crew would have been very difficult. There was no electricity therefore no refrigeration and the only fuel source to provide hot food were wood burning stoves.
When do we eat? Little cooking was done at sea. Food often consisted of: – pickled or dried meat –ship's biscuits (made from flour with a little water to make them hard). By the end of the voyage, these biscuits would be full of black insects called weevils. –cheese, –onions, –dried beans –salted fish or recently caught fresh fish.
–Without fresh fruit and vegetables, which contain vitamin C, sailors suffered from a fatal condition called scurvy. –Water supply was another serious problem. Fresh water did not always keep in barrels and wine turned sour. –Fresh water was the first thing the crew looked for whenever the ship reached land.
Where did they get the expression “three square meals a day”? The ships carpenter would make plates for the crew and the easiest way to make a plate was to cut a square section piece of wood. Square shaped plates could be stowed away easily and wooden ones would not break no matter how violent the ships movement might become.
So when the sea allowed and there was sufficient food available, every effort would have been made to provide the crew with a hot edible meal. This would have been collected from the galley and eaten with relish on the mess deck table utilizing the square section plate.
Did You Know? To overcome scurvy, Royal Naval ships crews were given a daily ration of Lime juice and even today the Navy makes this ration available when certain arduous conditions prevail. This was noticed by the Americans before the war of independence and hence the English are still referred to as "Limeys" to this day.
Press Gangs The early press gangs operated within the law. They would frequent the bars on the lookout for any young, strong and fit looking male. They would persuade the poor fellow into volunteering as they bought the beers the poor wretch would awake from his drunken sleep to find himself on one of his Majesty's Warships. He was now subject to the full rigors of military discipline, so there was no turning back
Press gangs would often use trickery. When the victim was not looking, they would drop a shilling into his tankard of ale. Having drunk the ale, the victim was classed as having accepted the Kings shilling and therefore had "Volunteered" to serve on a Warship.
Any argument and the "Volunteer" was knocked unconscious only to come round as a fully paid up crew member, so once again there was no turning back. The landlords in charge of these port bars were rapidly losing their customers with this trick, so they introduced the glass bottom tankard. Press gangs soon realized that they could keep these shillings for themselves if they simply used force and kidnapped the victim. This became common place.
Portugal Reasons for Exploration~ –Portugal wanted to break the monopoly of Venice and Genoa with trade to the East –“mercantilism” –Portugal wanted power –Decided to sail around Africa to get to the East (Cape of Good Hope) Warfare in the Mediterranean
Portugal Prince Henry the Navigator~ –Son of King –Set up a school to train sailors and study exploration –Taught how to use a compass and an astrolabe Find location with longitude and latitude –Continued to sail and set up trading posts –Reached bottom of Africa in 1490
Portugal: Famous explorers Bartholomew Diaz~ (Bartolomeu Dias) –Reached the bottom of Africa –Went back to tell Prince Henry –Made them feel that they can do it
Portugal: Famous explorers Vasco de Gama~ –1498 sailed around Africa and reached Asia –Brought back all things Italians were selling –Now began to trade –Lowered their prices so people bought their products –Gained the MONOPOLY!
Portugal Famous explorers: Pedro Cabral~ –Started sailing –Hit a hurricane in 1502 –Landed in Brazil and claimed for Portugal
Portuguese territory in New World Only territory was the accidental claim in Brazil
Spain Reasons for Exploration~ –Saw Portugal getting wealthy and decided they wanted to also –Columbus thought to sail West to reach the Indies
Spain Ferdinand and Isabella~ –Started the exploration which leads to Spanish empire in new world –They financed Columbus and his voyage
Famous Spanish Explorers: Christopher Columbus~ –Really thought he reached Asia –Died in 1506 –Discovered a new continent –Landed in San Salvador in 1492, Bahamas –Made 4 voyages 1492, 1493, 1498, 1502 –Changed history
Columbus Man behind the myth
At 2 a.m. on October 12, 1492, the lookout on the Pinta sighted land, "a white sand cliff gleaming in the moonlight on the western horizon.“ When daylight came, they edged closer to the island. Small boats were lowered from the three caravels, as natives gathered on the beach, naked and shy. Columbus and his officers came ashore, planting the royal flag of Ferdinand and Isabella, and gave thanks to God.
They were on the island of Guanahani, but beginning a practice which would last for 500 years they promptly ignored the name the islanders called their home and named the island San Salvador then knelt in prayers of thanks to a God the islanders knew nothing about
Columbus believed that he had landed on an island off the coast of China, and called the people "Indios", or Indians. He never saw the mainland of North America.
Columbus set out to prove the earth was round. At the end of the 15th Century, most everyone knew the earth was a sphere. What was in question, however, was the size of the earth--its circumference. Columbus underestimated the size of the earth by one-fourth
Queen Isabella sold the crown jewels to pay for Columbus' voyage The queen may have suggested this at some point, but her financial advisers assured her that there were other ways to finance the enterprise.
One way was to make the city of Palos pay back a debt to the crown by providing two of the ships. Another way was to get Italian financial backing for part of the expenses. The crown had to put up very little money from the treasury.
Several hundred sailors were aboard the three caravels on the initial voyage in The ships were relatively large for the anticipated long journey on an unpredictable sea.
Only 90 men made the first voyage of discovery. The ships were quite tiny by modern standards--no longer than a tennis court, and less than 30 feet wide. The Santa Maria had 40 men aboard, the Pinta, 26, and the Nina, 24. Only the Nina and the Pinta returned to Spain, as the Santa Maria was shipwrecked on Christmas Day, 1492.
39 men volunteered to stay behind at the fortress called "La Navidad" on the northern coast of present-day Haiti (they all perished at the hands of the Indians prior to the return of Columbus the following year).
The crew of the three ships on the voyage of discovery was made up mainly of criminals.
The crew was primarily comprised of seasoned sailors from the towns of Palos and Moure, Spain, thanks to the efforts of the Pinzon brothers. Just in case Columbus might have had trouble attracting a crew, the crown did offer amnesty to criminals. However, only four criminals were on board: one a convicted murderer (he killed a man in a quarrel); the other three, accused of freeing him from prison.
The initial voyage from Spain to the new world was perilous--fraught with bad weather and lack of food. Several sailors died on the way.
No one died on the maiden voyage. There was enough food aboard for one year. The weather was almost ideal--no storms were encountered. However, on the return trip to Spain there was a major hurricane which almost destroyed the two remaining ships.
Columbus set foot on North American soil
Columbus never saw North America. His first landfall was in the Bahamas. While in anchor of St. Croix (USVI) on November 14, 1493, some of Columbus' crew experienced the first hostile encounter with the Indians. Five days later he landed at San Juan Bautista, now Puerto Rico.
Later he would visit the northeastern tip of South America and the eastern coast of Central America, but never mainland U.S.A. The fact is that Columbus never admitted that he had discovered a new continent
There was a priest on board the Santa Maria in 1492.
There were no friars or priests on the first voyage in 1492, despite Columbus' deep religious fervor. Many of the paintings of the first landfall in the new world on San Salvador show a priest with Columbus- -contrary to the facts. There were five priests on the second voyage.
Columbus died a pauper, in chains, in a Spanish prison
Despite the fact that the Spanish crown retracted some of the privileges promised to Columbus, he was a relatively rich man at the time of his death. Although he returned to Spain in chains in 1500 after his third voyage, the King and Queen apologized for the misunderstanding and had them removed.
Columbus died quietly at the age of 55 in Valladolid, Spain, on May 20, 1506 in his own apartment attended by family and friends.
Columbus is buried in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic.
There is much controversy surrounding the whereabouts of the remains of Columbus. There are records of the transferal of his remains on different occasions, so that it is possible that parts of his remains are in several locations.
The prevailing belief, however, is that his primary burial place is in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain, with some of his bones or ashes in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and some in Genoa, Italy. At one time they were in Cuba
Where in the New World is San Salvador? Columbus's arrival point in the New World is still contested.
SOME OTHER INTERESTING FACTS WOMEN were not on the first or second voyages of Columbus. The first women colonists appeared in 1498, when Columbus was allowed to recruit one woman for every ten emigrants on the third voyage.
HORSES were introduced to the new world by Columbus on his second voyage.
SEVENTEEN SHIPS and over twelve- hundred men made up "The Grand Fleet" of the second voyage in TOBACCO was introduced into Europe because of Columbus' discovery of its use by the Indians.
Source: International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance
Famous Spanish Explorers: Amerigo Vespucci~ –North and South America named after him –Unclear if he was ever there –Did not want to sail for Italy
Famous Spanish Explorers: Balboa~ –1 st of the Spanish Conquistadores found Panama and walked across it to Pacific Ocean –Claimed all the land that the Pacific touched for Spain
Famous Spanish Explorers: Ferdinand Magellan~ –Proved that there was a new continent and earth was round –1 st to sail all around the world –Never finished voyage, died in the Philippines by the natives – ships and 200 men sailed through the Strait of Magellan to the Pacific –1522- last ship with 18 men came back to Spain
Famous Spanish Explorers: Hernando Cortez~ –He popularized the new world –Landed in New Mexico –Conquered the Aztecs and took all the gold and silver (millions of dollars) –Sent all of the wealth back to Spain
Famous Spanish Explorers: Francisco Pizarro~ –Conquered Incas and took all of their wealth –Established wealth for Spain
Famous Spanish Explorers: Ponce de Leon~ –Left Cuba and went to look for Fountain of Youth –Found Florida and established the 1 st Spanish settlement at St. Augustine
Famous Spanish Explorers: Hernando de Soto~ –Went looking for gold and silver and found the Mississippi River –He died and his crew threw him over board into river –Claimed all land touching the River for Spain
Famous Spanish Explorers: Francisco Coronado~ –He was told by Natives of the 7 cities of Gold –Explored all western lands –Never found the cities –Killed Indian guide –Claimed all land for Spain
Territory claimed and settled by Spain All territory in New World divided land into 2 parts South American countries (excluding Brazil) under control of viceroy of Spain Florida, American Southwest, California, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Islands in West Indies
Spain Sources of Wealth~ –G–Gold and silver from Native nations and tribes –N–Natives became slaves to the production –N–Natives were used until the African Slave Trade was used Important Settlements~ –M–Mexico City –S–St. Augustine –L–Lima –H–Havana –V–Vera Cruz
France Reasons for Exploration~ –M–MERCANTILISM –S–Start looking for Northwest Passage to get to Asia –F–Found Artic Ocean
Famous French Explorers: Jacques Cartier~ –sent by King of France –Found St. Lawrence River –Claimed land around for France –He went back to King and told him that he found the route to Asia
Famous French Explorers: *Samuel de Champlain~ –“Father of New France” –1608: established the city of Quebec –1 st white man to explore great lakes – Made wealth for France –Began the Fur Trade between the Natives and the French
Famous French Explorers: Marquette & Joliet~ –Marquette was a priest and Joliet was a fur trader –Continued exploration of Great Lakes –Explored upper Mississippi –Claimed all land for France
Famous French Explorers: Robert de LaSalle~ –Sailed Mississippi River and claimed for France –Spain had already claimed –French settled New Orleans and received the land because had the settlers
Territory Claimed and Settled by France New France –2–2 parts Along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes Louisiana to the Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico, between the Appalachian Mountains and Rocky Mountains France had established forts for fur trading and had more settlers
France Source of Wealth~ –F–Fur trade with Natives –F–French traders treated the natives as equal Important Settlements~ –Q–Quebec, Montreal, New Orleans
England Reason for Exploration~ –MERCANTILISM –Desire to find Northwest Passage
Famous English Explorers John & Sebastian Cabot~ –Italian explorers working for the British –1 st voyage landed in Northern New England –Claimed all territory for England –Never returned home after 2 nd voyage
Famous English Explorers Sir Frances Drake~ –Pirate who loved to rob Spanish treasure ships –Went on a voyage around the world –2 nd to do so, –1 st to survive –Claimed south eastern U.S. for England
Famous English Explorers Martin Frobisher & Humphrey Gilbert~ –L–Looking for Northwest passage –N–No way to get through because of iceHumphrey Gilbert's world map, 1576
Henry Hudson~ –Again looking for Northwest Passage –Sailed into Hudson Bay (after Dutch voyage to River) –Never came back –Left there
England Territory claimed and settled by England~ –E–East Coast –M–Maine- Georgia –A–Area around Hudson Bay
Holland Reasons for Exploration~ –MERCANTILISM Henry Hudson~ –Discovered Hudson River and claimed all land near for Holland Territory claimed and settled by Holland~ –Claimed all land around Hudson River Long Island, Manhattan, Albany, Northern Jersey
Sweden Territory claimed and settled by Sweden~ –S–Sent 1 ship –C–Claimed Wilmington, Delaware – South Jersey –B–Build 1 st log cabin in America
RESULTS OF EXPLORATION Competition between European nations for monopolies New discovered continents for settlement Created wealth Proved world was round Increase and decrease of Empires