2Background to Exploration 476 A.D A.D. Middle Ages:CrusadesRenaissancemercantilismTea, spices, silk, fruits, cotton brought backEuropeans want to enter into tradeBegin to explore so they have the monopoly of the resources
4The Vikings Came from Norway, Sweden, Denmark Erik the Red- a great Viking discovered Iceland950- discovered Greenland1000- Leif Erikson discovered Newfoundlandand settled itNot given much credit because did not have a record of settlement
7Where is the ship’s name? If you were a sailor how would you find your ship?
8The Captain The captain of the ship needed funding manpower support from a rich benefactor.Most voyages during the fourteenth century were made in the name of the royal ruler of a particular government.The ships that the royal leaders provided were not always new, but the captain took what he was given.
9The captain himself was not always an experienced seaman. Desire for wealth or political favor were often his only motivations for undertaking dangerous voyages.He could be a merchant, adventurer, soldier, or gentleman of the court.Under his command were:the pilot or first mate (who was in charge of navigation)the crew (who worked the sails and rigging and made repairs to the ship while in uncharted waters).
10The CrewThe crewmen who signed on to these long and dangerous voyages were not the most experienced seamenlarge numbers of them were neededto help man the sailsallow for attrition due to illness and death.
11I’m Hungry!In the days of the old wooden sailing ships, food and fresh water was always a problem, therefore feeding a hardworking crew would have been very difficult.There was no electricity therefore no refrigeration and the only fuel source to provide hot food were wood burning stoves.
12When do we eat? Little cooking was done at sea. Food often consisted of:pickled or dried meatship's biscuits (made from flour with a little water to make them hard). By the end of the voyage, these biscuits would be full of black insects called weevils.cheese,onions,dried beanssalted fish or recently caught fresh fish.
13Without fresh fruit and vegetables, which contain vitamin C, sailors suffered from a fatal condition called scurvy.Water supply was another serious problem. Fresh water did not always keep in barrels and wine turned sour.Fresh water was the first thing the crew looked for whenever the ship reached land.
14Where did they get the expression “three square meals a day”? The ships carpenter would make plates for the crew and the easiest way to make a plate was to cut a square section piece of wood.Square shaped plates could be stowed away easily and wooden ones would not break no matter how violent the ships movement might become.
15So when the sea allowed and there was sufficient food available, every effort would have been made to provide the crew with a hot edible meal.This would have been collected from the galley and eaten with relish on the mess deck table utilizing the square section plate.
16Did You Know?To overcome scurvy, Royal Naval ships crews were given a daily ration of Lime juice and even today the Navy makes this ration available when certain arduous conditions prevail.This was noticed by the Americans before the war of independence and hence the English are still referred to as "Limeys" to this day.
17Press Gangs The early press gangs operated within the law. They would frequent the bars on the lookout for any young, strong and fit looking male.They would persuade the poor fellow into volunteering as they bought the beersthe poor wretch would awake from his drunken sleep to find himself on one of his Majesty's Warships.He was now subject to the full rigors of military discipline, so there was no turning back
18Press gangs would often use trickery. When the victim was not looking, they would drop a shilling into his tankard of ale.Having drunk the ale, the victim was classed as having accepted the Kings shilling and therefore had "Volunteered" to serve on a Warship.
19Any argument and the "Volunteer" was knocked unconscious only to come round as a fully paid up crew member, so once again there was no turning back.The landlords in charge of these port bars were rapidly losing their customers with this trick, so they introduced the glass bottom tankard.Press gangs soon realized that they could keep these shillings for themselves if they simply used force and kidnapped the victim.This became common place.
20Portugal Reasons for Exploration~ Portugal wanted to break the monopoly of Venice and Genoa with trade to the East“mercantilism”Portugal wanted powerDecided to sail around Africa to get to the East (Cape of Good Hope)Warfare in the Mediterranean
21Portugal Prince Henry the Navigator~ Son of King Set up a school to train sailors and study explorationTaught how to use a compass and an astrolabeFind location with longitude and latitudeContinued to sail and set up trading postsReached bottom of Africa in 1490
22Portugal: Famous explorers Bartholomew Diaz~(Bartolomeu Dias)Reached the bottom of AfricaWent back to tell Prince HenryMade them feel that they can do it
23Portugal: Famous explorers Vasco de Gama~1498 sailed around Africa and reached AsiaBrought back all things Italians were sellingNow began to tradeLowered their prices so people bought their productsGained the MONOPOLY!
24Portugal Famous explorers: Pedro Cabral~Started sailingHit a hurricane in 1502Landed in Brazil and claimed for Portugal
25Portuguese territory in New World Only territory was the accidental claim in Brazil
26Spain Reasons for Exploration~ Saw Portugal getting wealthy and decided they wanted to alsoColumbus thought to sail West to reach the Indies
27Spain Ferdinand and Isabella~ Started the exploration which leads to Spanish empire in new worldThey financed Columbus and his voyage
28Famous Spanish Explorers: Christopher Columbus~Really thought he reached AsiaDied in 1506Discovered a new continentLanded in San Salvador in 1492, BahamasMade 4 voyages 1492, 1493, 1498, 1502Changed history
30At 2 a.m. on October 12, 1492, the lookout on the Pinta sighted land, "a white sand cliff gleaming in the moonlight on the western horizon.“When daylight came, they edged closer to the island. Small boats were lowered from the three caravels, as natives gathered on the beach, naked and shy.Columbus and his officers came ashore, planting the royal flag of Ferdinand and Isabella, and gave thanks to God.
31They were on the island of Guanahani, but beginning a practice which would last for 500 years they promptly ignored the name the islanders called their home and named the island San Salvadorthen knelt in prayers of thanks to a God the islanders knew nothing about
32Columbus believed that he had landed on an island off the coast of China, and called the people "Indios", or Indians.He never saw the mainland of North America.
33Columbus set out to prove the earth was round. At the end of the 15th Century, most everyone knew the earth was a sphere.What was in question, however, was the size of the earth--its circumference.Columbus underestimated the size of the earth by one-fourth
34Queen Isabella sold the crown jewels to pay for Columbus' voyage The queen may have suggested this at some point, but her financial advisers assured her that there were other ways to finance the enterprise.
35The crown had to put up very little money from the treasury. One way was to make the city of Palos pay back a debt to the crown by providing two of the ships.Another way was to get Italian financial backing for part of the expenses.The crown had to put up very little money from the treasury.
36Several hundred sailors were aboard the three caravels on the initial voyage in The ships were relatively large for the anticipated long journey on an unpredictable sea.
37Only 90 men made the first voyage of discovery. The ships were quite tiny by modern standards--no longer than a tennis court, and less than 30 feet wide.The Santa Maria had 40 men aboard, the Pinta, 26, and the Nina, 24.Only the Nina and the Pinta returned to Spain, as the Santa Maria was shipwrecked on Christmas Day, 1492.
3839 men volunteered to stay behind at the fortress called "La Navidad" on the northern coast of present-day Haiti(they all perished at the hands of the Indians prior to the return of Columbus the following year).
39The crew of the three ships on the voyage of discovery was made up mainly of criminals.
40The crew was primarily comprised of seasoned sailors from the towns of Palos and Moure, Spain, thanks to the efforts of the Pinzon brothers.Just in case Columbus might have had trouble attracting a crew, the crown did offer amnesty to criminals.However, only four criminals were on board: one a convicted murderer (he killed a man in a quarrel); the other three, accused of freeing him from prison.
41Several sailors died on the way. The initial voyage from Spain to the new world was perilous--fraught with bad weather and lack of food.Several sailors died on the way.
42No one died on the maiden voyage. There was enough food aboard for one year.The weather was almost ideal--no storms were encountered.However, on the return trip to Spain there was a major hurricane which almost destroyed the two remaining ships.
44Columbus never saw North America. His first landfall was in the Bahamas.While in anchor of St. Croix (USVI) on November 14, 1493, some of Columbus' crew experienced the first hostile encounter with the Indians.Five days later he landed at San Juan Bautista, now Puerto Rico.
45Later he would visit the northeastern tip of South America and the eastern coast of Central America, but never mainland U.S.A.The fact is that Columbus never admitted that he had discovered a new continent
46There was a priest on board the Santa Maria in 1492.
47There were no friars or priests on the first voyage in 1492, despite Columbus' deep religious fervor.Many of the paintings of the first landfall in the new world on San Salvador show a priest with Columbus--contrary to the facts.There were five priests on the second voyage.
48Columbus died a pauper, in chains, in a Spanish prison
49Despite the fact that the Spanish crown retracted some of the privileges promised to Columbus, he was a relatively rich man at the time of his death.Although he returned to Spain in chains in 1500 after his third voyage, the King and Queen apologized for the misunderstanding and had them removed.
50Columbus died quietly at the age of 55 in Valladolid, Spain, on May 20, 1506 in his own apartment attended by family and friends.
51Columbus is buried in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic.
52There is much controversy surrounding the whereabouts of the remains of Columbus. There are records of the transferal of his remains on different occasions, so that it is possible that parts of his remains are in several locations.
53The prevailing belief, however, is that his primary burial place is in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain,with some of his bones or ashes in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic,and some in Genoa, Italy.At one time they were in Cuba
54Where in the New World is San Salvador? Columbus's arrival point in the New World is still contested.
55SOME OTHER INTERESTING FACTS WOMEN were not on the first or second voyages of Columbus.The first women colonists appeared in 1498, when Columbus was allowed to recruit one woman for every ten emigrants on the third voyage.
56HORSES were introduced to the new world by Columbus on his second voyage.
57SEVENTEEN SHIPS and over twelve-hundred men made up "The Grand Fleet" of the second voyage in 1493. TOBACCO was introduced into Europe because of Columbus' discovery of its use by the Indians.
59Source: International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance
60Famous Spanish Explorers: Amerigo Vespucci~North and South America named after himUnclear if he was ever thereDid not want to sail for Italy
61Famous Spanish Explorers: Balboa~1st of the Spanish Conquistadores found Panama and walked across it to Pacific OceanClaimed all the land that the Pacific touched for Spain
62Famous Spanish Explorers: Ferdinand Magellan~Proved that there was a new continent and earth was round1st to sail all around the worldNever finished voyage, died in the Philippines by the nativesships and 200 men sailed through the Strait of Magellan to the Pacific1522- last ship with 18 men came back to Spain
64Famous Spanish Explorers: Hernando Cortez~He popularized the new worldLanded in New MexicoConquered the Aztecs and took all the gold and silver (millions of dollars)Sent all of the wealth back to Spain
65Famous Spanish Explorers: Francisco Pizarro~Conquered Incas and took all of their wealthEstablished wealth for Spain
66Famous Spanish Explorers: Ponce de Leon~Left Cuba and went to look for Fountain of YouthFound Florida and established the 1st Spanish settlement at St. Augustine
67Famous Spanish Explorers: Hernando de Soto~Went looking for gold and silver and found the Mississippi RiverHe died and his crew threw him over board into riverClaimed all land touching the River for Spain
68Famous Spanish Explorers: Francisco Coronado~He was told by Natives of the 7 cities of GoldExplored all western landsNever found the citiesKilled Indian guideClaimed all land for Spain
69Territory claimed and settled by Spain All territory in New World divided land into 2 partsSouth American countries (excluding Brazil) under control of viceroy of SpainFlorida, American Southwest, California, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Islands in West Indies
70Spain Sources of Wealth~ Important Settlements~ Gold and silver from Native nations and tribesNatives became slaves to the productionNatives were used until the African Slave Trade was usedImportant Settlements~Mexico CitySt. AugustineLimaHavanaVera Cruz
71France Reasons for Exploration~ MERCANTILISM Start looking for Northwest Passage to get to AsiaFound Artic Ocean
73Famous French Explorers: Jacques Cartier~sent by King of FranceFound St. Lawrence RiverClaimed land around for FranceHe went back to King and told him that he found the route to Asia
74Famous French Explorers: *Samuel de Champlain~“Father of New France”1608: established the city of Quebec1st white man to explore great lakesMade wealth for FranceBegan the Fur Trade between the Natives and the French
75Famous French Explorers: Marquette & Joliet~Marquette was a priest and Joliet was a fur traderContinued exploration of Great LakesExplored upper MississippiClaimed all land for France
76Famous French Explorers: Robert de LaSalle~Sailed Mississippi River and claimed for FranceSpain had already claimedFrench settled New Orleans and received the land because had the settlers
77Territory Claimed and Settled by France New France2 partsAlong the St. Lawrence River and Great LakesLouisiana to the Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico, between the Appalachian Mountains and Rocky MountainsFrance had established forts for fur trading and had more settlers
78France Source of Wealth~ Important Settlements~ Fur trade with Natives French traders treated the natives as equalImportant Settlements~Quebec, Montreal, New Orleans
79England Reason for Exploration~ MERCANTILISM Desire to find Northwest Passage
81Famous English Explorers John & Sebastian Cabot~Italian explorers working for the British1st voyage landed in Northern New EnglandClaimed all territory for EnglandNever returned home after 2nd voyage
82Famous English Explorers Sir Frances Drake~Pirate who loved to rob Spanish treasure shipsWent on a voyage around the world2nd to do so,1st to surviveClaimed south eastern U.S. for England
83Famous English Explorers Martin Frobisher & Humphrey Gilbert~Looking for Northwest passageNo way to get through because of iceHumphrey Gilbert's world map, Humphrey Gilbert's world map, 1576
84Famous English Explorers Henry Hudson~Again looking for Northwest PassageSailed into Hudson Bay (after Dutch voyage to River)Never came backLeft there
85England Territory claimed and settled by England~ East Coast Maine- GeorgiaArea around Hudson Bay
86Holland Reasons for Exploration~ Henry Hudson~ MERCANTILISMHenry Hudson~Discovered Hudson River and claimed all land near for HollandTerritory claimed and settled by Holland~Claimed all land around Hudson RiverLong Island, Manhattan, Albany, Northern Jersey
87Sweden Territory claimed and settled by Sweden~ Sent 1 ship Claimed Wilmington, DelawareSouth JerseyBuild 1st log cabin in America
88RESULTS OF EXPLORATION Competition between European nations for monopoliesNew discovered continents for settlementCreated wealthProved world was roundIncrease and decrease of Empires