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1 A model of basic literacy for foreign language learning: EL1 learners of French Lynn Erler Oxford University Department of Education

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Presentation on theme: "1 A model of basic literacy for foreign language learning: EL1 learners of French Lynn Erler Oxford University Department of Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 A model of basic literacy for foreign language learning: EL1 learners of French Lynn Erler Oxford University Department of Education Acknowledgements: Prof. E. Macaro

2 2 Process model building Metaphorical representation of cognitive processing Parsimonious A schematic synthesis Based on theory and empirical evidence Pedagogically useful In process Waves of models of reading processing Ruddell and Unrau (2004, 5 th ed.)

3 3 Series of empirical studies 1 2003 Descriptive N= 359 24 interviewees Cross-sectional: all Year 7 (11 yrs) students in 2 comprehensive schools questionnaire, onset & rhyme tests, timed word reading, interviews 2 2004-6 Intervention N= 118 9 interviewees Cross-sectional: students in 6 intact mixed ability groups: 3 intervention, 3 control; 11-12 yrs (Yrs 7 & 8) 15-month reading and writing strategies pre- and post-tests, questionnaire 3 2006 Survey N= 1,735 Achieved sample = 25 schools, stratified for SES, school academic results (KS 3), 9 regions in Engl. Ages 11- 14 (Yrs 7, 8, 9) questionnaire, two tests: rhyme, word segmentation

4 4 I cant say the words After a year of learning French in English schools 11-year olds were asked what happened when they saw written French words for the first time The letters are all muddled Its scrambled When theyre on the board, they look like a different word than what youve been repeating It doesnt sound like its written A lot of French are pronounced differently to how theyre spelled, just a bit weird they are.

5 5 Reading disability / impairment The subject is virtually unable to read visually unfamiliar words aloud, indicative of an impairment of grapheme-phoneme conversion and/or phonemic assembly. This condition is often referred to as phonological dyslexia. Ellis (1993), Fawcett (ed) (2001), Derouesné & Beauvois (1985), Sprenger-Charolles & Colé (2003)

6 6 11-year olds words: decoding, sub-vocalising, working memory, phonological loop, accessing meaning in long-term aural memory When youre doing silent reading, you read it and you can hear the words in your head, but youre not saying them. If the teacher sometimes says that word and some other time you see the word and dont know what it means, if you try and pronounce it in French and if it sounds like what the teacher says, you might recognise it. [ When I read French ] theres kind of like a thing thats going on in my head trying to pronounce it, but when I hear it, it doesnt sound like anything like what Ive heard [ spoken by the teacher ]. I hear the words in my head – I think its my teachers voice

7 7 When Im reading I try and pronounce it, but if I cant and I read it, it just sounds completely wrong. I try to carry on but it does stop me from understanding. [Anyway] most of the words look a lot like English words, so Id just pronounce them like English words, just to help me… it would probably make more sense. I say the words in my head but its an English pronunciation decoding French; using English GPC to access meaning

8 8 Printed word Sounds of word (Seidenberg 2002) automaticity PPP – presentation, practice, production Teaching and learning words and phrases in the Foreign Language Classroom in England GPC

9 9 Sounds of words when spoken Printed word MEANING L1 GPC Orthography Phonology PPP – presentation, practice, production

10 10 Sounds of word - heard or said Printed word MEANING L1 GPC Orthography Phonology Context and schemata knowledge

11 11 Sounds of word - heard or said Printed word MEANING GPC Orthography Phonology Context and schemata knowledge print Orthography

12 12 Year 9 verbal reports during piloting of the rhyme test for Study 3 % incorrect bonjour – bonheur Yes. Begins with the same letters ~ 50% and ends with the same letter No, because of the j and the h salut – rue No. different letters at the end 45-38% vert – verte Yes ~ 50% chat – hâte No ~ 40% nimbe – baleine No, different number of letters ~ 25% bain – frein Yes, same final letters 30-40% bleu – peur Blau – um, r at the end: no 53%

13 13 Ehri (1991, 1995) identified a pre-alphabetic stage in reading acquisition where the learner identifies a word from the surrounding visual context with minimal if any attention being given to the actual graphic presentation of the word. fine-grained or partial alphabetic, where only one or a few letters are used by the reader to try to identify the word; an individual letter-to-sound decoding approach to the whole or nearly whole of the word; large-grained, where a larger number of letters are used by the reader who recognises the correspondence of letter strings to single or multiple phonemes. Ziegler and Goswami (2005) Berent and Perfetti (1995) reported that there may be two cycles of phonological assembly involving the consonants first and then the vowels; also sequence changes of letters may occur. Goswami (2004) refers to the flexibility of phonemic manipulation required by learner readers of English L1 as an opaque language. Research on learning to read English as a first language: approaches to the form of the written word and phonological assembly

14 14 sounds printed word Model 2 GPC Orthography Phonology Input + lack of GPC knowledge + weak memory traces + need or desire to accomplishment task = overload in working memory recourse to L1, L3, other approaches Task accomplishment FL teacher needs an awareness of learners pre-literacy approaches: grain size, sequence changes, consonants, EL1 requirement of flexibility in phoneme manipulation, general mistrust of GPC consistency due to English lack of transparency. Students need: experience with orthographic forms; exposure to script and sounds; reassurance of the transparency of French GPC but: wrong activation, production of nonsense, incoherent sub-vocalisation, confusion, poor memory storage and retrieval, struggle, sense of language impairment and of being a cheat; discontent

15 15 The role which the sounds of the words play for KS3 students – results from questionnaires N = 359 Known word: think of sound – 53.1% say/whisper – 53.8% most often – 34.7% Unknown word: sound it out – 63.3% Pronunciation is useful for reading French – 74.9% Hear words in my head when reading French – 45.0% N = 1,735 say words in my head when reading French – 74.6% (1,294) sound out words I know– 65.8% (1,141) sound out new words– 64.8% (1,124) say vocabulary in my head when learning it – 76.5% (1,327) say the Fr words in my head when writing them – 74.7% (1,296)

16 16 happy; not bothered puzzled, worried, angry, embarrassed reading aloud in French?45.3%48.4% pronouncing French aloud?46.6%48.0% How do you feel when: Results of the pen and paper rhyme tests: (1)7 0% could not successfully identify more than a third of rhyming words correctly N = 359 (2) mean result was half correct; 3.3% achieved better than chance results; scarcely any difference over 3 years

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