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Atmosphere Study Guide Air Pressure Air Pressure Textbook pages 4 &5 Layers of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Textbook pages 6-9 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere Study Guide Air Pressure Air Pressure Textbook pages 4 &5 Layers of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Textbook pages 6-9 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere Study Guide Air Pressure Air Pressure Textbook pages 4 &5 Layers of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Textbook pages 6-9 1

2 Directions Read through each slide one at a time. Read through each slide one at a time. Whenever you see a “Question” Whenever you see a “Question” *write your answer on the answer sheet before moving on. You may use your textbook or notes. You may use your textbook or notes. 2

3 AIR PRESSURE REVIEW 3

4 If you were lost in the desert, you could survive for a few days without food and water. If you were lost in the desert, you could survive for a few days without food and water. However, you wouldn’t last more than 5 minutes without the atmosphere. However, you wouldn’t last more than 5 minutes without the atmosphere. Question #1: Why wouldn’t you last more than 5 minutes? (Always place your answer on your answer sheet) 4

5 Hopefully, you answered correctly. Hopefully, you answered correctly. We can last a few days without food and water, but we need air to breathe. We can last a few days without food and water, but we need air to breathe. We would also need the atmosphere to protect us from sun’s damaging rays. We would also need the atmosphere to protect us from sun’s damaging rays. -The ozone traps the harmful u ltraviolet light 5

6 Question #2: In your own words, what is the Atmosphere? (If you know, write your answer down on the answer sheet. If you don’t know or wish to verify, you can look it up on page 4 in your textbook before moving on. ) Question #2: In your own words, what is the Atmosphere? (If you know, write your answer down on the answer sheet. If you don’t know or wish to verify, you can look it up on page 4 in your textbook before moving on. ) 6

7 With the opportunity to look it up, I’m sure you answered correctly. With the opportunity to look it up, I’m sure you answered correctly. The Atmosphere is the “layer of gases that surrounds the Earth.” The Atmosphere is the “layer of gases that surrounds the Earth.” 7

8 Composition of Atmosphere In class, we talked about all of the gases that are in the atmosphere. We even did a pie graph of the gases. In class, we talked about all of the gases that are in the atmosphere. We even did a pie graph of the gases. Question #3: What two gases make up most of the Earth’s atmosphere. Question #3: What two gases make up most of the Earth’s atmosphere. (If you are unsure of the answer or wish to verify, please go to page 4 in your textbook, left side) (If you are unsure of the answer or wish to verify, please go to page 4 in your textbook, left side) 8

9 Nitrogen=This is the most abundant gas. It comes from all the dead plants and dead animals breaking down year after year. Volcanoes erupt and give off nitrogen, too. Nitrogen=This is the most abundant gas. It comes from all the dead plants and dead animals breaking down year after year. Volcanoes erupt and give off nitrogen, too. Oxygen=This is the 2 nd most abundant gas. It is released by plants and little plankton in the water give off a lot of it also. Oxygen=This is the 2 nd most abundant gas. It is released by plants and little plankton in the water give off a lot of it also. 9

10 After Nitrogen and Oxygen… We learned the next two main gases are Argon and Carbon Dioxide. We learned the next two main gases are Argon and Carbon Dioxide. Finally, trace gases. Finally, trace gases. Question #4: What does it mean when scientists say trace gases? Question #4: What does it mean when scientists say trace gases? 10

11 I hope you made a good guess! Trace gases are gases that are incredibly small. Trace gases are gases that are incredibly small. Some trace gases could be water vapor, krypton, and xenon. Some trace gases could be water vapor, krypton, and xenon. 11

12 With all that nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and traces gases pushing down on you it builds up pressure. With all that nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and traces gases pushing down on you it builds up pressure. Pressure is the column of air that is above you. Pressure is the column of air that is above you. There is so much air above you that you have 14.7 pounds per square inch pushing on you! There is so much air above you that you have 14.7 pounds per square inch pushing on you! 12

13 Question #5: With all of that air pushing down us (14.7 pounds per square inch), why are we not crushed? 13

14 WHY? I hope you got it…. Air pressure is equal in all directions. Air pressure is equal in all directions. So, air pushes equally on all sides of us. The forces are balanced! So, air pushes equally on all sides of us. The forces are balanced! 14

15 Air Pressure Pressure is a force that acts over a certain area. Pressure is a force that acts over a certain area. With air pressure, the force will always try to equalize. With air pressure, the force will always try to equalize. You see this when you get a hole in your bicycle tire. You see this when you get a hole in your bicycle tire. 15

16 Tire Example/Balls Air inside a tire or a ball pushes against the sides. Air inside a tire or a ball pushes against the sides. The more air we put into a ball, the more the molecules push. The more air we put into a ball, the more the molecules push. The air pressure is high and if the tire or ball “pops” the air will rush out of the object to equalize. The air pressure is high and if the tire or ball “pops” the air will rush out of the object to equalize. 16

17 Question #6: Question #6: When air pressure tries to equalize, will it go from areas of low to high pressure, or high to low pressure? Explain. When air pressure tries to equalize, will it go from areas of low to high pressure, or high to low pressure? Explain. 17

18 Way to go. Air pressure always wants to go from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Way to go. Air pressure always wants to go from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Remember our elevator example. If you were jammed into an elevator with many people and the doors open, you would want to rush out into the walkway. You would try to equalize the pressure, just like air does. Remember our elevator example. If you were jammed into an elevator with many people and the doors open, you would want to rush out into the walkway. You would try to equalize the pressure, just like air does. 18

19 19 Question #7: We have discussed and looked at these two photos in our textbook. Why are there fewer molecules at higher altitudes and more molecules at lower altitudes?

20 There are less molecules due to the gravitational pull of the Earth’s atmosphere. There are less molecules due to the gravitational pull of the Earth’s atmosphere. Remember our “claw” example. The gravitational pull is greater at Earth’s surface which means more molecules closer to Earth. The pull is less as you increase altitude, which means less molecules. Remember our “claw” example. The gravitational pull is greater at Earth’s surface which means more molecules closer to Earth. The pull is less as you increase altitude, which means less molecules. 20

21 Question #8: Question #8: If you were to climb Mount Everest, you would become very cold as you climbed to the summit. You may even experience severe weather changes. Explain why air temperature changes as you increase altitude. If you were to climb Mount Everest, you would become very cold as you climbed to the summit. You may even experience severe weather changes. Explain why air temperature changes as you increase altitude. 21

22 Air temperature changes as altitude increases. Air temperature changes as altitude increases. There are less gases to absorb the sun’s energy (heat). There are less gases to absorb the sun’s energy (heat). Cold Up Here…see the snow! Warm Down Here… 22

23 Altitude and Density Question #9: Another thing that would happen to you when you climb Mount Everest would be difficulty in breathing. Why? Another thing that would happen to you when you climb Mount Everest would be difficulty in breathing. Why? 23

24 You guessed it! As you increase altitude, you decrease gases. You guessed it! As you increase altitude, you decrease gases. A climber has less oxygen to go into their lungs as they go higher and higher. Therefore, they need an oxygen tank to reach the top. A climber has less oxygen to go into their lungs as they go higher and higher. Therefore, they need an oxygen tank to reach the top. 24

25 Earth’s Atmosphere Review 25

26 We learned that technology helped scientists realize the atmosphere existed beyond our Earth. 26

27 Question #1: What did scientists decide to use in order to determine the layers of the atmosphere? What did scientists decide to use in order to determine the layers of the atmosphere? 27

28 Correct! Correct! Each layer is based on its temperature. Each layer is based on its temperature. 28

29 Temperature and the Troposphere Close to Earth: temperature at surface is warmed by the earth absorbing energy from the sun. Close to Earth: temperature at surface is warmed by the earth absorbing energy from the sun. The air cools by about 44°F for every mile above the ground. The air cools by about 44°F for every mile above the ground. 29

30 TROPOSPHERE TROPOSPHERE The Troposphere layer contains the most matter and mass of any of the layers. The Troposphere layer contains the most matter and mass of any of the layers. Question #2: Question #2: Name “5” things you would find in the troposphere layer. Name “5” things you would find in the troposphere layer. 30

31 Some possible items… People, animals, water, weather, clouds, planes, cars, kites, helicopters, mountains, a lot of oxygen, plants, etc. People, animals, water, weather, clouds, planes, cars, kites, helicopters, mountains, a lot of oxygen, plants, etc. 31

32 Temperature and the Stratosphere At the bottom of the Stratosphere, it very cold. At the bottom of the Stratosphere, it very cold. At the top of the Stratosphere it gets very warm. At the top of the Stratosphere it gets very warm. 32

33 Stratopshere Question #3: Question #3: What is in the Stratosphere layer that would cause the upper part of it to suddenly get so warm? 33

34 Ozone The Stratosphere contains the Ozone Layer. The Ozone’s gases traps the sun’s harmful ultra-violet energy waves and makes that area very warm. The Stratosphere contains the Ozone Layer. The Ozone’s gases traps the sun’s harmful ultra-violet energy waves and makes that area very warm. 34

35 Also in the Stratosphere.. We also stated that the Jet Stream is found here. We also stated that the Jet Stream is found here. Question #4: Question #4: a. Why is the Jet Stream important to the United States? b. What direction does the Jet Stream travel? c. Why do pilots like the Jet Stream? 35

36 Jet Stream a. The jet stream is important to the U.S. for it gives us all of our weather patterns. a. The jet stream is important to the U.S. for it gives us all of our weather patterns. b. WE love the jet stream…west to east direction. b. WE love the jet stream…west to east direction. c. Pilots enjoy using the jet stream when they can to make quicker travel time and save money on gas. c. Pilots enjoy using the jet stream when they can to make quicker travel time and save money on gas. d. d. 36

37 Temperature and the Mesosphere This layer has no molecules in it. This layer has no molecules in it. It does not absorb energy from the sun, so it is freezing! It does not absorb energy from the sun, so it is freezing! Check out those negative numbers! 37

38 MESOSPHERE Question #5: Question #5: What wonderful thing happens in the Mesosphere that helps the Earth every single day? What wonderful thing happens in the Mesosphere that helps the Earth every single day? 38

39 Burns ‘em Up!! You guessed it. The Mesosphere is so cold that it “burns” up the meteors that shower us throughout the day. You guessed it. The Mesosphere is so cold that it “burns” up the meteors that shower us throughout the day. 39

40 Temperature and the Thermosphere The air is so thin here that it takes special instruments to measure the temperature accurately. The air is so thin here that it takes special instruments to measure the temperature accurately. So even though it is very hot (over 1832°F), it would feel cold in places because there are so few particles to transfer heat to you. So even though it is very hot (over 1832°F), it would feel cold in places because there are so few particles to transfer heat to you. 40

41 The Thermosphere Very top layer Very top layer Air is very, very thin, about 1/1000 th as dense as the air where we live Air is very, very thin, about 1/1000 th as dense as the air where we live “Thermo” means heat “Thermo” means heat Question #6: Question #6: What is the lower and upper part of the Thermosphere called? What is the lower and upper part of the Thermosphere called? 41

42 The Ionosphere-lower portion Energy from sun strips the electrons from the gas molecules creating charged particles called ions. Energy from sun strips the electrons from the gas molecules creating charged particles called ions. Radio waves can bounce off of ions, allowing radio waves to travel great distances. Radio waves can bounce off of ions, allowing radio waves to travel great distances. The aurora borealis (Northern Lights) occur here The aurora borealis (Northern Lights) occur here 42

43 The Exosphere-Upper Portion “Exo” means outer “Exo” means outer Extends for 1000’s of miles Extends for 1000’s of miles Satellites orbit here Satellites orbit here No definite edge No definite edge Molecules gradually escape out into space Molecules gradually escape out into space 43

44 Question #7: Answer the following….. a. Which layer has the most amount of gases found in it? a. Which layer has the most amount of gases found in it? b. Which layer is the hottest? b. Which layer is the hottest? c. Which layer contains living organisms? c. Which layer contains living organisms? d. Which layer contains satellites? d. Which layer contains satellites? e. Which layer contains shooting stars? e. Which layer contains shooting stars? f. f. 44

45 a. Troposphere a. Troposphere b. Thermosphere b. Thermosphere c. Troposphere c. Troposphere d. Thermosphere’s Exosphere Portion d. Thermosphere’s Exosphere Portion e. Mesosphere e. Mesosphere FANTASTIC JOB. Log off/plug in lap top. Log off/plug in lap top. Put this assignment in your folder. Put this assignment in your folder. If time, use your study strips. If time, use your study strips. 45


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