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1 Atmosphere and the Big Four Systems of Our Earth See your Atmosphere Guided Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Atmosphere and the Big Four Systems of Our Earth See your Atmosphere Guided Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Atmosphere and the Big Four Systems of Our Earth See your Atmosphere Guided Notes.

2 2 Composition of Earth Earth has 4 interactive systems: Earth’s systems Atmosphere Air/gases Hydrospher e water Biosphere life Geosphere land/rock

3 3 The Atmosphere– layer of gas that surrounds Earth, more commonly known as air.

4 4 Atmosphere. How do you know it’s there? Is this air that surrounds us considered to be matter? Does it weigh anything? How do you know? Think about it and decide on answers. Talk in groups if assigned by teacher. Be ready to tell the class what you decided and why. Don’t start cooperative group work unless you know and follow group rules. Any questions?

5 5 Weight of the atmosphere Gases are in the atmosphere. Their elements are listed in the periodic table: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Air is matter! Sound can travel through it. It has volume and mass.

6 6 Even though you can’t see them, atoms make up gases. Are some atoms bigger than others? Are their atomic weights all the same?

7 7 Helium vs. Carbon Dioxide Do you think of helium as light and floating or heavy and falling? Do you think about Carbon Dioxide as light and floating or heavy and falling? Think about the gas released from dry ice--does it go up or down? F239cINIADs

8 8 Composition of Earth’s Atmosphere atmosphere Mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen  Has layers Protects us from meteors and comets, x-rays, gamma rays, ultra violet light Water vapor is responsible for clouds and precipitation Composition is almost constant EXCEPT for water (from 0 to 5% --not shown in the pie chart above)

9 9 Atmosphere (Exosphere)-- Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere

10 10 Composition of Earth’s atmosphere The Atmosphere layers  Exosphere  Thermosphere  Ionosphere  Mesosphere  Stratosphere  Troposphere What is below the troposphere?  geosphere (solid Earth) Exosphere

11 11 Where does the troposphere fit in? Earth’s 4 main systems: The Atmosphere Troposphere  Contains most clouds and weather.  Temperature cools as you go higher; ~50% of sun’s energy enters, 50% is reflected back.  Most of the troposphere’s heat has bounced back from Earth (convection) Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere The Hydrosphere The Biosphere The Geosphere Exosphere

12 12 Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere-- Contains most clouds and weather. Temperature cools as you go higher; 50% of sun’s energy passes through, 50% is reflected back. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth (convection)

13 13 Troposphere, Water, and Clouds Among other gases, there is water vapor in the troposphere. The amount varies. You cannot see water vapor. Clouds form when air rises, cools to its dew point, and becomes saturated with water vapor. Water changes state. Bits of liquid and solid water can remain suspended in air.

14 14 Precipitation-falling water in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail

15 15 So water changes state. Why does that matter so much? Changing state: Redistributes fresh water all over Earth Causes much wind! Models of these phenomena will be demonstrated now, if possible. Try to figure out how they represent Earth.

16 16 Water Cycle Demonstration (involves redistribution of water)

17 17 Water Vapor Demonstration (involves huge change in volume)

18 18 Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere Weather—the atmosphere’s condition in terms of temperature, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, humidity, and air pressure. What are different types of weather? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

19 19 Temperature—a measure of how fast air molecules are moving. When molecules are moving rapidly, temperature is high. Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometers measure air temperature. Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere

20 20 What is the temperature like today? Hot/ Cold ______________________ Degrees Fahrenheit_______________ Degrees Celsius _________________ Energy is transferred between fast-moving molecules and slower-moving molecules. Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere

21 21 Energy is transferred by: Conduction—transfer of energy when molecules collide. Give an example of something heating up due to conduction. Convection, which occurs when warm air rises and cool air sinks. Give an example of something heating up due to convection. Radiation—transfer of energy by waves or rays Examples are light, microwaves, or heat. Infrared radiation is heat. Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere

22 22 Air pressure— the weight of air. Since air is a fluid, the weight pushes in all directions, not just down. Air pressure varies from one place to another Warmer air is less dense and exerts less pressure. Cooler air is more dense and exerts more pressure. Works just like other fluids, such as water. Earth’s Weather in the Troposphere

23 23 Air Pressure Demonstration or Discussion —Write about what you learned.

24 24 Humidity— the amount of water vapor in the air Temperature affects humidity

25 25 Dewpoint—when the air is holding as much water vapor as it can Relative humidity— a measure of the amount of water vapor present compared to the amount that could be held at a specific temperature.

26 26 THAT WAS ALL ABOUT THE TROPOSPHERE!!! Let’s cover the other layers briefly. Go back up to the graphic organizer at the top of your guided notes and fill in information about each layer as we come to it. Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere-- Stratosphere-- Troposphere

27 Altitude and temperature What does this mean? 27

28 28 Composition of Earth’s atmosphere Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: The Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere  10 km to 50 km  contains ozone (the ozone layer) that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation.  Gets warmer as you go up! Mesosphere Thermosphere The Hydrosphere The Biosphere The Geosphere

29 29 Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere- Stratosphere-- 10 km to 50 km Contains ozone, which absorbs much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Gets warmer as you go up. Troposphere- - Contains most clouds and weather. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth. Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

30 30 Composition of Earth’s atmosphere Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: The Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere  km  The coldest part of the atmosphere (to -90°C)  Gets colder as you go up.  Thermosphere The Hydrosphere The Biosphere The Geosphere

31 31 Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere-- Mesosphere km, The coldest part of the atmosphere (to -90°C) Gets colder as altitude gets higher. Stratosphere-- 10 km to 50 km, contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Gets warmer as you go up. Troposphere- - Contains most clouds and weather. Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

32 32 Composition of Earth’s atmosphere Earth has 4 main interactive systems: 1. The Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere  km  Temperatures increase up to 1,700°C  Filters out x-rays and gamma rays from the sun.  This is an image of the space shuttle as it is orbiting around the Earth. The space shuttle orbits in the thermosphere of the Earth. 2. The Hydrosphere 3. The Biosphere 4. The Geosphere

33 33 Atmosphere (Exosphere) Thermosphere km, Temperatures increase up to 1,700°C. Filters out x-rays and gamma rays from the sun. The space shuttle orbits in the thermosphere. Mesosphere-- The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere Stratosphere-- from 10 km to 50 km above Earth’s surface, this layer contains ozone that absorbs much of Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Troposphere-- Contains most clouds and weather., Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.

34 34 Thermosphere : Ionosphere Ionosphere is the inner part of the thermosphere a layer of electrically charged particles This layer allows radio waves to travel across the country to another city. ust.com/henley /atmosphere/index.html /atmosphere/index.html

35 35 Thermosphere : Exosphere The outer part of the thermosphere The last layer of the atmosphere Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins Very few atoms in this layer of the atmosphere Temperature gets higher with higher altitude (e.g. 17,000 degrees C) But if we could visit, it would not feel hot. Why is that?

36 36 Atmosphere (Exosphere)- The outer part of the thermosphere. Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins, Very few atoms in this layer of the atmosphere. Higher altitude~higher temperature. Thermosphere-- The air is really thin that high up. The temperature changes with the solar activity. If the sun is active, temperatures in the thermosphere can get up to 1,500°C or higher! High temperature, but would not feel hot if we could visit. (Why?) Mesosphere-- The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere Stratosphere-- from 10 km to 50 km above Earth’s surface, this layer contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Troposphere- - Contains most clouds and weather., Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude. Ionosphere: the inner part of the thermosphere a layer of electrically charged particles within the mesosphere and thermosphere This layer allows radio waves to travel.

37 Any questions? 37


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