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**The number of organisms per unit area**

Population Density The number of organisms per unit area

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**Which has a higher population size?**

United States New York City 0 of 5

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**Which has a higher population density?**

United States New York City 0 of 5

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3 Types of Dispersion Draw Each Uniform Clumped Random

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**3 Types of Dispersion 1) Uniform 2) Clumped 3) Random**

Ex: ______ __________ ________

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**Type of dispersion: White-Tailed Deer**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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**Type of dispersion: Black Bear**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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**Type of dispersion: Bison**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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**Type of dispersion: Mountain Lion**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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**Type of dispersion: Seeds dispersed by wind**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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**Type of dispersion: Caribou**

Uniform Clumped Random 0 of 5

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Limiting Factors Items that influence population growth “Limit” growth

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**1. Density-dependent limiting factors**

“Depends” on “density” a) Affect large, dense populations more than smaller, less- crowded populations

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**Density-dependent limiting factors**

Predation: Fig. 5-7 Wolves & Moose on Isle Royale

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Predator - Prey

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Which increases first? Predator Prey 0 of 5

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**Density-dependent limiting factors**

ii. Disease & Parasites: Easily spread in large, dense populations

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**Density-dependent limiting factors**

iii. Competition: Fig Compete for available resources Food, water, space

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iv. Crowding & Stress: The higher population density, the more crowding and stress on individual organisms

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**2. Density-independent factors**

The density of the population DOES NOT MATTER It doesn’t matter if the population is 5 or 5,000, they will be affected

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**Density-independent factors**

Hot/Cold Weather Fires Floods/Hurricanes/Tornadoes Human Activities – toxic waste spills, pesticides, deforestation

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**Population Growth Rate**

How fast a population grows It depends on 4 major factors

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**Population Growth Rate**

a) Natality = birthrate “neonatal intensive care” – newborns/preemies b) Mortality = death rate

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**Population Growth Rate**

c) Emigration – “exit” or leaving population d) Immigration – “in” or moving into a population

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**Population Growth Rate**

Natality – Mortality + Immigration - Emigration

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If natality is 10, mortality is 6, immigration is 3, and emigration is 2……the net effect on the population is… + 21 - 3 + 3 + 5 0 of 5

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**If the original population consisted of 10 individuals, what is the new population size?**

20 15 5 0 of 5

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**If birth rate > death rate**

The population will increase The population will stay the same The population will decrease 0 of 5

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**If birth rate < death rate**

The population will increase The population will stay the same The population will decrease 0 of 5

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**1. Exponential Growth (J–shaped Curve)**

If ideal conditions continue, the population will continue to grow rapidly Doubling and re-doubling 1, 2, 3, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128…….. Does NOT last long in nature – WHY?

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**Exponential Growth (J–shaped curve)**

d) This is current human population growth worldwide How long can it last? Discuss

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Exponential Growth e) Draw graph

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2. Boom and Bust As ideal conditions continue, population grows exponentially until it reaches a “peak” size (boom) and then crashes (bust) Ex: Rabbit population

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Boom and Bust c) Draw graphs

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**Yeast Population Growth**

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**3. Logistic Growth (S-shaped curve)**

a) Exponential growth at first, eventually the population size levels off as the growth rate slows down b) Carrying capacity: Largest number of individuals that the environment can support

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Logistic Growth c) Draw graph

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**Logistic Growth (S-shaped curve)**

d) Things that prevent the population from getting too big: Lack of food or water Home/shelter availability

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**Which of the following are NOT true about exponential growth?**

It occurs at the beginning of logistic growth curves It shows an S-shaped growth curve It occurs only if ideal conditions exist Populations have unlimited resources 0 of 5

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**Reproductive Patterns**

r-strategy: rate strategy Generally are small Short life spans Produce many offspring rat, fruit fly, locusts

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**Reproductive Patterns**

k-strategy: carrying capacity strategy Larger organisms, long life span Produces few offspring –better chance of survival Take care of the offspring, usually for a long time Kangaroo, elephant

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**Reproductive Pattern: Rabbits & Dolphins**

Both r-strategists Both k-strategists r-strategist & k-strategist k-strategist & r-strategist 0 of 5

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Demography The study of human population size, density, distribution, movement, and birth and death rates

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**Demographic Transition**

A change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

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**Demographic Transition**

Stage 1: birth rate & death rate Stage 2: birth rate & death rate Stage 3: birth rate & death rate Stage 4: birth rate & death rate Discuss & answer questions on Notes handout

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**Zero Population Growth**

Birth rate = Death rate

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**Age-Structure Diagram**

# of males & females in 3 age groups: Pre-reproductive stage Reproductive stage Post-reproductive stage

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**Age-Structure Diagrams**

Fig – predict future population sizes… Pyramid shaped (pre-reproductive larger) Every age group about the same Smaller at the bottom (pre-reproductive #’s smaller)

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**Population will increase Population will stay the same **

Predict future population sizes: Pyramid shaped (pre-reproductive larger) Population will increase Population will stay the same Population will decrease 0 of 5

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**Predict future population sizes: Every age group about the same size**

Population will increase Population will stay the same Population will decrease 0 of 5

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**Population will increase Population will stay the same **

Predict future population sizes: Smaller at the bottom (pre-reproductive smaller) Population will increase Population will stay the same Population will decrease 0 of 5

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**Education & Demographic Transition**

What does the first graph tell us? What does the second graph tell us? What is a key factor in reducing the overall worldwide population growth?

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