Presentation on theme: "Population Dynamics The change in the size, density, dispersion, and age distribution of a population in response to changes in environmental conditions."— Presentation transcript:
1Population DynamicsThe change in the size, density, dispersion, and age distribution of a population in response to changes in environmental conditions.
2Healthy PopulationsA healthy population will grow and die at a steady rate unless it runs out of food or space or is attacked by disease or predators.
3How are populations studied? Introduced into study areas with abundant resources.Tracked in their natural environment.Population Counts – Determine if a population is healthy and growing.Population Density – Population per Area
4What difficulties can occur when trying to measure a wildlife population? Wildlife can look alike, move, and hide resulting in animals being missed or counted more than once.
5So, how do you measure a population? Trap-Mark-ReleaseAnimals are trapped, marked, and released and then trapped a second time.By comparing the number of marked and unmarked animals in the second sampling, the population size can be estimated.
6So, how do you measure the size of a population? Sample CountsUsed to estimate the size of a population scattered over a large area by sampling a smaller area.
7How fast do populations grow? Population size is affected by the birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and emigration rate of a population.Birth Rate + Immigration > Death Rate + Emigration = IncreaseBirth Rate + Immigration < Death Rate + Emigration = Decrease
8Population CurvesA population curve graphs the size of a population (number of individuals) on the y-axis over time on the x-axis.
9Population GrowthPopulations show exponential growth, not linear growth.The population growth starts out slow and then increases rapidly with the increasing population size until the carrying capacity is reached.Unlimited exponential growth results in an J-shaped population curve.
11Carrying Capacity (K)The largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support indefinitely.When a population reaches carrying capacity, some organism must either die off or find new resources.
12Temporary Overshoot of Carrying Capacity Before a population reached carrying capacity, it is not affected by limiting factors and can grow exponentially and can overshoot the carrying capacity.
13Temporary Overshoot of Carrying Capacity After the carrying capacity is exceeded, the resources for the population are limited and unless other resources are found, the population will suffer a crash and fall to a new lower carry capacity for the population.This results in an S-shaped population curve.
14Life-History Pattern An organism’s reproduction pattern. Can vary between two extremes.Rapid life-history patternsSlow life-history patterns
15Slow Life History Patterns Produce a few, often large offspring, which they care for over a long period of time.Maintain stable population sizes near the carrying capacity.Populations typically follow an S-shaped curve.
16Rapid Life History Patterns Have a high rate of population growth (r) (Many offspring in a short time period.)Reproduce hordes of offspring early in life.Offspring are usually small, short-lived, and mature rapidly with little to no parental care.
17Rapid Life History Patterns Usually opportunists, reproducing rapidly when conditions are favorable and crashing when conditions are not.Examples: insects, rodents, bacteria
18Biotic PotentialHighest rate of reproduction under idealistic conditions.The larger the number of offspring produced by parent organisms, the higher the biotic potential of the species.
19Limiting Factors and Dispersal 3 Patterns of DispersalRandomClumped (most common)Uniform (least common)
20Population Controls Density-dependent Population Controls Limiting Factors which become more influential as the population increases.Examples: disease, competition, predatorsDensity-independent Population ControlsEffect population regardless of population size or dispersal.Examples: temperature, storms, drought
21How do interactions between organisms limit population size? Predator-Prey RelationshipsPredators limit the size of prey populations, which can then limit the size of the predator population.CompetitionUsually the most intense within the same species.Overcrowding and Stress
22Human Populations Demography Doubling Time The study of human population size, density and distribution, movement, and birth and death rates.Doubling TimeThe time needed for a population to double in size.
23Human Populations Age Structure The proportions of the population that are in different age levels.Can be used to determine stability.