Presentation on theme: "Population Density The number of organisms per unit area."— Presentation transcript:
Population Density The number of organisms per unit area
United States or New York City? Which has a higher population size? Which has a higher population density?
3 Types of Dispersion Fig. 4.2 Uniform Clumped Random
What type of dispersion….? White-tailed deer? Black bear? Bison? Mountain lions? Seeds dispersed by wind? Caribou?
What is a limiting factor?
Density-dependent limiting factors a) Affect large, dense populations more than smaller, less- crowded populations Depends on density
Density-dependent limiting factors i. Predation: Fig. 4.5 Wolves & Moose on Isle Royale
Isle Royale In addition to the predator/prey relationship, the moose and wolf population were affected by: The amount of food for the mouse Disease among the wolf population
THE PREY ALWAYS INCREASES FIRST. Predator - Prey
Density-dependent limiting factors ii. Disease & Parasites: Easily spread in large, dense populations
Density-dependent limiting factors iii. Competition: Fig Compete for available resources Food, water, space
iv. Crowding & Stress: The higher population density, the more crowding and stress on individual organisms
Density-independent factors a) The density of the population DOES NOT MATTER b) It doesnt matter if the population is 5 or 5,000, they will be affected
Density-independent factors i. Hot/Cold Weather ii. Fires iii. Floods/Hurricanes/Tornadoes iv. Human Activities – toxic waste spills, pesticides, deforestation
Population Growth Rate How fast a population grows It depends on 4 major factors
Population Growth Rate a) Natality = birthrate b) Mortality = death rate
Population Growth Rate c) Emigration – exit or leaving population d) Immigration – in or moving into a population
Population Growth Rate Population growth = Natality – Mortality + Immigration - Emigration
If natality is 10, mortality is 6, immigration is 3, and emigration is 2…… 1. What is the net effect on the population size? 2. If the original population consisted of 10 individuals, what is the new population size?
Population Growth Rate If birth rate > death rate The population will….. If birth rate < death rate The population will….
Exponential Growth (J–shaped curve) a) If ideal conditions (have everything!) continue, the population will continue to grow rapidly b) Doubling and re-doubling a) 1, 2, 3, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128…….. c) Does NOT last long in nature – WHY?
Exponential Growth (J–shaped curve) d) This is current human population growth worldwide How long can it last? Discuss e) Draw graph *Industrial revolution
Boom and Bust a) As ideal conditions continue, population grows exponentially until it reaches a peak size (boom) and then crashes (bust) b) Ex: Rabbit population c) Draw graphs
Yeast Population Growth
Logistic Growth (S-shaped curve) a) Exponential growth at first, eventually the population size levels off as the growth rate slows down b) Carrying capacity: Largest number of individuals that the environment can support
Logistic Growth (S-shaped curve) c) Draw graph d) Things that prevent the population from getting too big: c) Lack of food or water d) Home/shelter availability
Reproductive Patterns r-strategy: rate strategy Generally are small Short life spans Produce many offspring rat, fruit fly, locusts (Fig. 4.9)
Reproductive Patterns k-strategy: carrying capacity strategy Larger organisms, long life span Produces few offspring –better chance of survival Take care of the offspring, usually for a long time Kangaroo, elephant
Demography The study of human population size, density, distribution, movement, and birth and death rates
Demographic Transition A change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates (Read pg 102)
Demographic Transition Stage 1: birth rate & death rate Stage 2: birth rate & death rate Stage 3: birth rate & death rate Stage 4: birth rate & death rate Discuss & answer questions on Notes handout
Zero Population Growth Birth rate = Death rate
Age-Structure Diagram # of males & females in 3 age groups: Pre-reproductive stage Reproductive stage Post-reproductive stage
Age-Structure Diagrams Fig – predict future population sizes… Pyramid shaped (pre-reproductive larger) Smaller at the bottom (pre-reproductive #s smaller)
Education & Demographic Transition 1. What does the first graph tell us? 2. What does the second graph tell us? 3. What is a key factor in reducing the overall worldwide population growth?