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Presentation on theme: "DR AMINA TARIQ BIOCHEMISTRY"— Presentation transcript:


2 The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. The ABO blood group system wasdiscovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types in 1900,he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for his work.

3 Blood has two main components: serum and cells
Blood has two main components: serum and cells. Karl Landsteiner, a physician at the University of Vienna, Austria, noted that the sera of some individuals caused the red cells of others to agglutinate. Two years later, two of his students discovered the fourth and rarest type, namely AB.

4 Biochemical Bases of Blood Groups
ABO substances are oligosaccharides present in most cells of the body and in certain secretions. On membranes of red cells the oligosaccharides that determine the specific nature of ABO substances are present in glycosphingolipids. In secretions the oligosaccharides are present in glycoproteins.

5 Alleles at a locus independent of the ABO blood group locus, known as the secretor locus, determine an individual's ability to secrete the ABO blood group substances in saliva and other body fluids. There are two genes, Se and se, where Se is dominant to se. In other words, an individual with at least one Se gene is a secretor.

6 The antigens expressed on the red blood cell determine an individual's blood group. The main two blood groups are called ABO (with blood types A, B, AB, and O) and Rh (with Rh D-positive or Rh D-negative blood types). Blood type O is the most common worldwide, followed by group A. Group B is less common, and group AB is the least common.





11 People with blood type O are said to be "universal donors" because their blood is compatible with all ABO blood types. Blood type AB individuals are known as "universal receivers" because they can receive blood from any ABO type.

12 Precursor of A&B substance
The H antigen is precursor to the ABO blood group antigens. The H locus is located on chromosome 19. All humans contain enzymes which catalyze the synthesis of the O antigen. 

13 The ABO blood group substances are glycoproteins, the basic molecule of which is known as the H substance. This H substance is present in unmodified form in individuals with blood type O. Adding extra sugar molecules to the H substance produces the A and B substances.

14 H- substance itself is formed by the action of a fucosyltransferase.
It catalyzes the transfer of fucose onto the terminal galactose residue in α1-2 linkage.

15 Humans with A-type blood also contain an additional enzyme which adds N- Acetylgalactosamine to the O antigen.  Humans with B-type blood contain another enzyme which adds Galactose to the O antigen. 

16 H(or O) GalNAc transferase A substance

17 H(or O) Gal transferase B substance


19 Humans with AB-type blood contain both A- type and B-type enzymes.
While humans with O-type blood lack both types of enzymes.

20 Antigens and Antibodies
An antigen is a substance, usually a protein or a glycoprotein, which, when injected into a human (or other organism) that does not have the antigen, will cause an antibody to be produced..

21 Antibodies are a specific type of immune- system proteins known as immunoglobulins, whose role is to fight infections by binding themselves to antigens.

22 In the case of the ABO blood groups, the antigens are present on the surface of the red blood cell, while the antibodies are in the serum.



25 Individuals with type A blood can receive blood from donors of type A and type O blood.
Individuals with type B blood can receive blood from donors of type B and type O blood.

26 Individuals with type AB blood can receive blood from donors of type A, type B, type AB, or type O blood. Individuals with type O blood can receive blood from donors of only type O. Individuals of type A, B, AB and O blood can receive blood from donors of type O blood. Type O blood is called the universal donor.

27 The Rh System The second most important blood group in humans is the Rhesus (Rh) system. Landsteiner and Wiener discovered the Rh blood group in They found that when they injected rabbits with Rhesus monkey blood; the rabbits produced antibodies against the Rhesus red cells.

28 The Rh blood group system is the major cause of hemolytic anemia in the newborn.
A fetus who is Rh+ and whose mother is Rh− is at high risk for this disorder, because the mother will produce antibodies against the fetal antigen.

29 Anti-Rh+ antibody is injected into the mother soon after her first delivery. This antibody coats the fetal Rh+ cells in the mother's circulation, which prevents them from causing antibody production in the mother and, therefore, her next child will not be at risk for hemolytic anemia.

30 Learning Resources Harpers Biochemistry Teachers Notes


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