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The Bloody Facts. Blood Groups, Typing, Transfusions Transfusion experiments carried out for hundreds of years. (Many patients died!) Transfusion experiments.

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Presentation on theme: "The Bloody Facts. Blood Groups, Typing, Transfusions Transfusion experiments carried out for hundreds of years. (Many patients died!) Transfusion experiments."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bloody Facts

2 Blood Groups, Typing, Transfusions Transfusion experiments carried out for hundreds of years. (Many patients died!) Transfusion experiments carried out for hundreds of years. (Many patients died!) 1901, Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups 1901, Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping occurs when the receiver has antibodies against the donor blood cells. Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping occurs when the receiver has antibodies against the donor blood cells. Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and carry out blood transfusions safely. Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and carry out blood transfusions safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930.

3 What are Blood Types? Inherited differences in human blood due to presence or absence of carbohydrate molecules called antigens. Antigens located on surface of RBC and antibodies (proteins) are in blood plasma. More than 20 genetic blood group systems known today, but AB0 and Rh systems are the most important ones for blood transfusions. Landsteiner was involved in the discovery of both the AB0 and Rh blood groups.

4 ABO blood groups AB0 blood grouping system According to the AB0 blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null). According to the AB0 blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null). Blood group A A antigens and anti-B antibodies Blood group B B antigens and anti-A antibodies Blood group AB Both A and B antigens, neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies Blood group 0 Neither A nor B antigens, both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

5 Rh Factor If people have the antigen they are called Rh+. Those who haven't are called Rh-. If people have the antigen they are called Rh+. Those who haven't are called Rh-. A person with Rh- blood has no Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma (as one can have A or B antibodies). But a person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood A person with Rh- blood has no Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma (as one can have A or B antibodies). But a person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems. A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems.

6 Blood Typing Take two drops of blood Take two drops of blood Put anti-A antibodies on one drop. Put anti-A antibodies on one drop. Put anti-B antibodies on the second drop. Put anti-B antibodies on the second drop. If first drop agglutinates, then the person has the A antigen If first drop agglutinates, then the person has the A antigen If the second drop agglutinates, then the person has the B antigen also If the second drop agglutinates, then the person has the B antigen also

7 Why is agglutination bad? What is happening when the blood clumps or agglutinates? Agglutinated red cells can clog blood vessels and stop the circulation of the blood to various parts of the body. The agglutinated red blood cells also crack and its contents leak out in the body. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin which becomes toxic when outside the cell. This can have fatal consequences for the patient.

8 Blood Transfusions Blood transfusions – who can receive blood from whom? Blood transfusions – who can receive blood from whom? People with blood group 0 are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB are called "universal receivers." People with blood group 0 are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB are called "universal receivers." The transfusion will work if a person who is going to receive blood has a blood group that doesn't have any antibodies against the donor blood's antigens. But if a person who is going to receive blood has antibodies matching the donor blood's antigens, the red blood cells in the donated blood will clump.

9 Who can give to whom?

10 Rh Disease

11 Frequencies of Blood Types


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