Presentation on theme: "Soil Mechanics - I Department of Civil Engineering Lecture # 5"— Presentation transcript:
1Soil Mechanics - I Department of Civil Engineering Lecture # 5 Chapter # 2. Soil ClassificationPrepared by:Mamoon KareemDepartment of Civil EngineeringSwedish CollegeOf Engg & Tech Wah Cantt.
2Chapter Outlines Importance of Soil Classification Atterberg Limits Grain Size DistributionSieve AnalysisHydrometer AnalysisUnified (USCS) and AASHTO Classification of Soil
31. Importance of Soil Classification Main types of soil i.e., Clay, Silt, Sand, Gravels, Boulders are seldom exist separately in nature.Natural soil deposits comprise mixture of above types in varying proportionsSoil classification means to arrange soil in groups and label them based on their properties and behaviour.Soil Classification Systems have been developed by different organizations.
4Basis for Soil Classification Classification is based on the following physical properties:Grain Size Distribution (GSD)Liquid limit (LL)Plasticity Index (PI)Classification systems give some idea about the general behaviour of soil.However to predict true behaviour additional information based on geotechnical properties are yet required.
5Basis for Soil Classification Classifying soils into groups with similar behavior, in terms of simple indices, can provide geotechnical engineers a general guidance about engineering properties of the soils through the accumulated experience.Simple indicesGSD, LL, PIClassification system (Language)Estimate engineering propertiesAchieve engineering purposesUse the accumulated experienceCommunicate between engineers
6Soil Classification System Classification systems developed by different organizations.Unified soil classification system.AASHTO (American Association of state Highway and Transportation Officials) soil classification system.USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) soil classification system.FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) soil classification system.Textural soil classification system.
7Soil Classification System Two commonly used systems:Unified Soil Classification System (USCS).Most widely used to classify soil for use in foundation & dam engineering.American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) SystemMost widely and exclusively used for highways and airfields
8Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Origin of USCS:This system was first developed by Professor A. Casagrande (1948) for the purpose of airfield construction during World War II. Afterwards, it was modified by Professor Casagrande, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to enable the system to be applicable to dams, foundations, and other constructionFour major divisions:Coarse-grainedFine-grainedOrganic soilsPeat
9Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) In order to use the classification system, the following points must be kept in mind.The classification is based on material passing a 75mm (3 in.) sieve.Coarse fraction = percent retained above No. 200 sieve = 100 – F200 = R200Fine Fraction = percent passing N sieve = F200Gravel fraction = percent retained above No. 4 sieve = R4.Broad Classification includes the following two types;Coarse-grained soils that are gravelly (G) and sandy (S) in nature with less than 50% passing through the No. 200 sieveFine-grained soils with 50% more passing through the No. 200 sieve i.e., F200 ≥ 50. Group symbols are M for inorganic silt, C for inorganic clay and O for organic silts and clays.
10Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Tests required for classification of soil are;Particle size analysis test.Liquid and plastic limit tests.The soil is classified in to 15 groups.Each group is designated a symbol consisting of two capital lettersThe first letter is based on main soil typeThe second letter is based on gradation and plasticity
11Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Symbols for main soil types:Coarse-grained soil is subdivided into two subgroups based on gradation.W-- for well-graded soilP -- for poorly-graded soilFine-grained soil is subdivided in two subgroups based on their plasticity characteristics.L-- for low plasticity soil (liquid limit < 50)H-- for high plasticity soil (liquid limit > 50)
13Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Soils possessing characteristics of two groups are known as borderline soils and designated by dual symbols e.g.,GC-GM, GW-GM, GW-GC, GP-GM, GP-GC, SC-SM, SW-SM, SW-SC, SP-SM, SP-SC, CL-ML.Total number of groups in USC system, therefore are 26.The Unified Soil Classification System is based on the following:Textural characteristics of coarse-grained soils with such small amount of fines, that fines do not affect the behaviour.Textural characteristics are evaluated by particle-size analysis.Plasticity characteristics of fine-grained soils where the fines affect the engineering behaviour.Plasticity characteristics are evaluated by the plasticity chart.Texture: The word texture means: what things are made of and how they feel. Textures can be described as “rough”, “smooth”, “hard”, “soft”, “liquid”, “solid”, “lumpy”, “gritty” etc. The word “texture” is used for many different things. OR The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or a substance.
14Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) To classify a soil, following information based on particle size analysis and Atterberg limits should be available.%age of gravel, that is, the fraction passing 3-in. (76.2mm) sieve and retained on the No.4 (4.75mm) sieve.%age of sand, that is, the fraction passing No.4 sieve (4.75mm) and retained on the No.200 (0.074mm) sieve.%age of silt and clay, that is, the fraction finer than the No.200 (0.075mm) sieve.Uniformity coefficient (Cu) and the coefficient of gradation (Cc), which actually depend on the shape of particle-size-distribution curve.Liquid limit and plasticity index of the fraction of soil passing No.40 sieve, plotted on the plasticity chart
15Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Definition of Grain SizeNo specific grain size- use Atterberg limitsGravelSandSilt andClayBouldersCobblesCoarseFineCoarseMediumFine300 mm75 mmNo.44.75 mmNo.2000.075 mm19 mmNo.102.0 mmNo.400.425 mm
18Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Plasticity Chart:The A-line generally separates the more claylike materials from silty materials, and the organics from the inorganics.The U-line indicates the upper bound for general soils.Note: If the measured limits of soils are on the left of U-line, they should be rechecked.
19Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Procedures forClassification:Coarse-grained materialGrain size distributionFine-grained materialLL, PI
21Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Auxillary Laboratory Identification Procedure:
22Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Borderline Cases (Dual Symbols):For the following three conditions, a dual symbol should be used.Coarse-grained soils with 5% - 12% fines.About 7 % fines can change the hydraulic conductivity of the coarse-grained media by orders of magnitude.The first symbol indicates whether the coarse fraction is well or poorly graded. The second symbol describe the contained fines. For example: SP-SM, poorly graded sand with silt.Fine-grained soils with limits within the shaded zone. (PI between 4 and 7 and LL between about 12 and 25).It is hard to distinguish between the silty and more claylike materials.CL-ML: Silty clay, SC-SM: Silty, clayey sand.Soil contain similar fines and coarse-grained fractions.possible dual symbols GM-ML
23Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) Guideline for Borderline Cases of USCS:
24Table: Group Symbols for Gravelly Soil Major DivisionLaboratory Classification CriteriaGroup SymbolTypical Names12345Coarse soil--More than half of soil is retained on No.200 sieve.Gravel--More than half of coarse soil is retained on No.4 sieve- No.200 < 5%; Cu ≥ 4 and 1 ≤ Cc ≤ 3GWWell-graded gravels, gravel-sand mixtures with little or no fines.- No.200 > 5%; and not meeting both criteria for GW.GPPoorly-graded gravels, gravel-sand mixtures with little or no fines.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits plot below “A” line and plasticity index less than 4.GMSilty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits plot above “A” line and plasticity index greater than 7.GCClayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits fall in hatched area marked CL-ML.GC-GMClayey-silty gravels, Gravel-silt-clay mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for GW and GM.GW-GMWell-graded gravels with silt, Gravel-sand-silt mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for GW and GC.GW-GCWell-graded gravels with clay binder, Gravel-sand silt clay mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for GP and GM.GP-GMPoorly-graded gravels with silt, Gravel-silt mixtures- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for GP and GC.GP-GCPoorly-graded gravels with clay, Gravel-clay mixtures.
25Table: Group Symbols for Sandy Soil Major DivisionCriteria for ClassificationGroup SymbolTypical Names12345Coarse soil--More than half of soil is retained on No.200 sieve.Sand--More than half of coarse soil passes No.4 sieve.- No.200 < 5%; Cu ≥ 6,and 1 ≤Cc ≤ 3SWWell-graded sands, gravelly sands with little or no fines.- No.200 < 5%; and not meeting both criteria for SW.SPPoorly-graded sands, gravelly sands with little or no fines.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits plot below “A” line in the plasticity chart or plasticity index less than 4.SMSilty sands, sand-silt mixtures.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits plot above “A” line in the plasticity chart or plasticity index greater than 7.SCClayey sands, sand-clay mixtures.- No.200 > 12%; Atterberg’s limits fall in hatched area marked CL-ML on the plasticity chart.SC-SMClayey-silty sand, sand-silt-clay mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for SW and SM.SW-SMWell-graded sand with silt, sand-silt mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for SW and SC.SW-SCWell-graded sand with clay, sand-silt-clay mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for SP and SM.SP-SMPoorly-graded sand with silt, sand-silt mixtures.- No.200 is 5-12%; and meets the criteria for SP and SC.SP-SCPoorly-graded sand with clay, sand-clay mixtures.
26Table: Group Symbols for Silty and Clayey Soil Major DivisionCriteria for ClassificationGroup SymbolTypical Names12345Fine grained soil--More than half of the soil passes No.200 sieve.Silt & Clay, LL <50Inorganic; LL < 50; PI> 7; and plots on or above “A” line (see CL zone in plasticity chart)CLInorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clay, sandy clay, silty clay, lean clays.Inorganic; LL < 50; PI < 4, or plots below “A” line(see ML zone in plasticity chart)MLInorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity.Inorganic; (LL for oven dried sample)/(LL for non dried sample) < 0.75; and LL < 50(see OL zone in plasticity chart)OLOrganic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity.Inorganic; plot in the hatched zone in the plasticity chart.CL-MLSilty clay of low plasticitySilt & Clay, LL >50Inorganic; LL ≥ 50; and PI plots above “A” line(see CH zone in plasticity chart)CHInorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays.Inorganic; LL ≥ 50; and PI plots below “A” line(see MH zone in plasticity chart)MHInorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts.Organic;(LL-oven-dried)/(LL-not dried) < .75And LL ≥ 50 ( see OH zone in plasticity chart)OHOrganic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts.Highly Organic SoilsPeat, muck, and other highly organic soilsPtPeat and other highly organic soils.
27Range of material %-age for coarse grained soil (ASTM-1986) Group Symbols% LimitsGroup NamesGW< 15% sandWell-graded gravel≥ 15% sandWell-graded gravel with sandGPPoorly graded gravelPoorly graded gravel with sandGW-GMWell-graded gravel with siltWell-graded gravel with silt and sandGW-GC<15% sandWell-graded gravel with clay (or silty clay)Well-graded gravel with clay and sand(or with silty clay and sand)GP-GMPoorly graded gravel with siltPoorly graded gravel with silt and sandGP-GCPoorly graded gravel with clay (or silty clay)Poorly graded gravel with clay and sandGMSilty gravelSilty gravel with sandGCClayey gravelClayey gravel with sandGC-GMSilty clayey gravelSilty clayey gravel with sand
28Range of material %-age for coarse grained soil (ASTM-1986)
29Description of USCS Groups Coarse Grained Soil:GW and SW groups:Well-graded gravelly and sandy soils with little or no fines (≤ 5%).Fines must not change the strength & free-draining characteristicsIn areas prone to frost action, they should not contain > 3% of grains smaller than 0.02 mm.GP and SP groups:Poorly graded gravels and sands with little or no fines.Poorly or Gap-graded materials are non-uniform mixtures of veryCoarse material and very fine sands with intermediate sizes lacking.GM and SM groups:Silty gravel & silty sand with fines (>12%) of low or no plasticity.These lie below the “A” line on the plasticity chart.Both well and poorly-graded materials are included in these groups.
30Description of USCS Groups Coarse Grained Soil:GMd and SMu groups:Suffices “d” and “u” mean desirable and undesirable base materialsThis subdivision applies to roads and airfields onlySubdivision is based on the liquid limit and plasticity indexSuffix “d” is used when LL is 25 or less and the PI is 5 or less;Suffix “u” is used otherwise.GC and SC groups:Gravelly or sandy soils with fines (> 12 %) that are more clay-like.The fines range in plasticity from low to high.The LL and PI of these groups plot above “A” line on plasticity chart.Both, well and poorly-graded soils are included in these groups.
31Description of USCS Groups Fine Grained Soil:ML and MH groups:Sandy silts, clayey silts, or inorganic silts with relatively low plasticity.Loess-type soils, rock flours, micaceous and diatomaceous soils are also included.Some types of kaolinite and illite clays also fall under these groups.Suffices L & M means low and highMicaceous and diatomaceous soils generally fall within the MH group but may extend into the ML group when their LL is less than 50.CL and CH groups:The CL and CH groups include clays with low and high liquid limitsThey are primarily inorganic clays.The medium and high plasticity clays are classified as CH and include fat clays, gumbo clays, bentonite, and some volcanic clays.The low plasticity clays are classified as CL and usually include lean clays, sandy clays, or silty clays.Bentonite: is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.Fat clay: A cohesive and compressible clay of high plasticity, containing a high proportion of minerals that make it greasy to the feel.Highly plastic soil is sometimes referred to as “fat clay” that swells excessively and loses stability when it becomes wet.
32Description of USCS Groups Fine Grained Soil:OL and OH groups:These groups are characterized by the presence of organic matter.Organic silts and clays are included in these two groups, and they have a plasticity range corresponding to the ML, and MH groups.Highly Organic Soils:These soils are designated by group symbol (Pt).They are usually very compressible and have undesirable engineering characteristics.These includes peat, humus, and swamp soils with a high organic texture.Common components of these soils are particles of leaves, grass, branches, or other fibrous vegetable matter.Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.In soil science, humus refers to any organic matter that has reached a point of stability, where it will break down no further and might, if conditions do not change, remain as it is for centuries, if not millennia. Humus significantly influences the texture of soil and contributes to moisture and nutrient retention. (Wikipedia)
33Group Symbols & their Characteristics related to Roads & Airfields Value as Subgrade When Not Subject to Frost ActionValue as Subbase When Not Subject to Frost ActionValue as Base When Not Subject to Frost ActionPotential Frost ActionCompressibility andExpansionDrainageCharacteristicsGWExcellentGoodNone to very slightAlmost noneGPGood to excellentFair to goodGMDSlight to mediumVery slightFair to poorUFairPoor to not suitableSlightPoor to practically imperviousGCSWPoorSP
34Group Symbols & their Characteristics related to Roads & Airfields Value as Subgrade When Not Subject to Frost ActionValue as Sub- base When Not Subject to Frost ActionValue as Base When Not Subject to Frost ActionPotential Frost ActionCompressibility andExpansionDrainageCharacteristicsSMDFair to goodPoorSlight to highVery slightFair to poorUFairPoor to fairNot suitableSlight to mediumPoor to practically imperviousSCMLMedium to very highCLMedium to highMediumPractically imperviousOLMHHighCHOHPoor to very poorPtSlightVery high
35American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) system Origin of AASHTO: (For road construction)Terzaghi and Hogentogler developed one of the first engineering soil classification system in 1928.It was intended specifically for use in highway construction. It rates soil according to the suitability for support of roadway pavements.The AASHTO classification system uses both particle size distribution and Attreberg limit data to assign a group classification and a group index to the soil.The group classification ranges from A-1 (best soil) to A-8 (worst soil).Group index values near zero indicate good soils, whereas values of 20 or more indicate very poor soils.However, it is important to remember that a soil that is good for use as a highway subgrade might be very poor for some other purpose.
36AASHTO Soil Classification System Soil classified under groups A-1, A-2 and A-3 are granular materials of which 35% or less of the particles pass through the sieve No. 200.Soils of which more than 35% pass through the sieve No. 200 are classified under groups A-4, A-5, A-6 and A-7. These soils are mostly silt and clay-type materials.Gravel: fraction passing the 75-mm (3-in.) sieve and retained on the No. 10 (2-mm) US sieve.Sand: fraction passing the No. 10 (2-mm) sieve and retained on the No. 200 (.075-mm) US sieve.Silt and Clay: fraction passing the No. 200 (.075-mm) sieve.Plasticity: The term silty is applied when the fine fraction of the soil have a plasticity index of 10 or less. The term clayey is applied when the fine fractions have a plasticity index of 11 or more.If cobbles and boulders (size larger than 75-mm) are encountered, they are excluded from the soil sample.
37AASHTO Soil Classification System Definition of Grain SizeNo specific grain sizeUse Atterberg limitsBouldersGravelSandSilt-ClayCoarseFine75 mmNo.102.00 mmNo.2000.075 mmNo.400.425 mm
38AASHTO Soil Classification System General Guidance:8 major groups: A1~ A7 (with several subgroups) and organic soils A8The required tests are sieve analysis and Atterberg limits.The group index, an empirical formula, is used to further evaluate soils within a group (subgroups).The original purpose of this classification system is used for road construction (subgrade rating).Using LL and PI separates silty materials from clayey materials (only for A2 group)Using LL and PI separates silty materials from clayey materials
39AASHTO Soil Classification System Group Index:For Group A-2-6 and A-2-7In general, the rating for a pavement subgrade is inversely proportional to the group index, GI.use the second term only
40AASHTO Soil Classification System Group Index:Following are some rules for determination of group index:If the equation for group index gives a negative value for GI, it is taken as zero.The group index calculated from the equation is rounded off to the nearest whole number (for example, GI = 4.4 is rounded off to 4; and GI = 4.5 is rounded off to 5).There is no upper limit for the group index.The group index of soils belonging to groups A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, and A-3 will always be zero.When calculating the group index for soils belonging to groups A-2-6, and A-2-7, the partial group index equation related to plasticity index (as given below) should be used.GI = 0.01(F200 – 15)(PI – 10)
41Classification of Soil-Aggregate Mixtures (with Suggested Subgroups) GeneralClassificationGranular Materials(35% or less passing No. 200)Silt-Clay Materials(More than 35% passing No. 200)GroupA-1A-3A-2A-4A-5A-6A-7A-1-aA-1-bA-2-4A-2-5A-2-6A-2-7A-7-5;A-7-6Sieve Analysis:% Passing:No. 10No. 40No.20050 Max.30 Max.15 Max.25 Max.51 Min.10 Max.35 Max.36 Min.Fraction passingNo.40:Liquid LimitPlasticity Index6 MaxN.P.40 Max.41 Min.11 Min.10 Min.Group Index4 Max.8 Max.12 Max.16 Max.20 Max.Usual Types of Significant Constituent MaterialsStone Fragments Gravel and SandFine SandSilty or ClayeyGravel SandSiltySoilsClayeyGeneral Rating as SubgradeExcellent to GoodFair to Poor
46Comparison of AASHTO and Unified soil classification systems AASHTO systemUnified systemIt is based on texture and plasticity of soil.The soil is divided into two major categories i.e., coarse grained and fine grained, as separated by the No. 200 sieve.A soil is considered fine grained when more than 35% passes the No. 200 sieve.It is based on texture and plasticity of soil.The soil is divided into two major categories i.e., coarse grained and fine grained, as separated by the No. 200 sieve.A soil is considered fine grained when more than 50% passes the No. 200 sieve.A coarse-grained soil having about 35% fines behaves like a fine-grained material, since there are enough fines to fill the voids between the coarse grains and hold them apart. In this respect AASHTO system is more appropriate.
47Comparison of AASHTO and Unified soil classification systems AASHTO systemUnified systemNo. 10 sieve is used to separate gravels from sand. The No. 10 sieve is more accepted as upper limit for sand. (Therefore AASHTO system is more appropriate.)Gravelly and sandy soils are not clearly separated. The A-2 group in particular, contains a larger variety of soil.The symbols A-1, A-2, etc., of this group are not well descriptive of the soil properties.Organic soils are not well discussed in this system.No. 4 sieve is used to separate gravels from sand.Gravelly and sandy soils are clearly separated.The symbols such as GW, SM, CH, and others are more descriptive of the soil properties.The classification of organic soils such as OL, OH and Pt has been provided in this system.
48Comparison of AASHTO and Unified soil classification systems Soil group in AASHTO systemMost probable group in USCSA-1-aGW, GPA-1-bSW, SP, GM, SMA-3SPA-2-4GM, SMA-2-5A-2-6GC, SCA-2-7GM, GC, SM, SCA-4ML, OLA-5OH, MH, ML, OLA-6CLA-7-5OH, MHA-7-6CH, CL
49Comparison of AASHTO and Unified soil classification systems Soil group inUnified systemMost Probable groups inAASHTO systemGWA-1-aGPGMA-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-7GCA-2-6, A-2-7SWA-1-bSPA-3, A-1-bSMA-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-7 A-2-6, A-2-7SCMLA-4, A-5CLA-6, A-7-6OLMHA-7-5, A-5CHA-7-6OHPt--
50Any Question…???Thank You … for paying your attention