4 American Imperialisma policy of extending a country’s power through diplomacy or military forceit occurs when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, and cultural life. Review:Crashcourse U.S. History#28: American Imperialism
5 World War IThe great war disrupted the status quo. The U.S. entered the war in 1917When the war ended in 1919, the U.S. did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the league of nations.The U.S. once again became isolationists, preferring to not become entangled in world affairsAmerican Draft Card WWI
6 Treaty of VersaillesWas the peace settlement signed after WWI ended in 1918Land was taken away from GermanyArmy was reduced to 100,000, no tanks or submarines allowedLoss of industrial territory made it hard to rebuild economy plus financial penalties linked to reparations“War Guild Clause” – Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the warLeague of Nations was set up
7 League of NationsFounded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended WWI.Principal mission was to maintain world peaceGoals:Prevent wars through collective security and disarmament and setting international disputes through negotiation and arbitrationMajor Flaw: It was unable to enforce its laws and mandates, it had no power to stop aggressors!
10 IsolationAmericans disillusioned by the outcome of WWI were happy to leave foreign policy to their leadersAmerican leaders believed that the world needed exactly what America needed-peace and prosperity
11 Isolation continued…U.S. foreign policy during the 1920s and 1930s pursued the goals of peace and prosperity through three tacticsWashington Naval Conference in 1922Agreed to disarmament by limiting size and number of battleshipsHalted an expensive arms race at the timeKellogg-Briand Pact of 1928An international agreement in which signatories promised not to use war to resolve “disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them.”Signed by Germany, France, U.S. , and most other nations followedThe Stimson Doctrine in 1932Non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by forcePolicy followed Japan’s seizure of Manchuria in northeastern China
12 Rise of Dictators Threaten The World Nationalism-loyalty to one’s country above all else- led to the rise of powerful dictatorsFascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individualsTotalitarian government exerted complete control over its citizens
13 Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin transformed the communist state into an agricultural and industrial powerAll private ownership of farms was abolished and replaced with collectives-large government owned farmsThe “Five Year Plan” outlined an industrial transformation that cost many Russian lives (estimates range between 8 to 20 million)However, by 1937, the Soviet Union became the second largest industrial power
14 Rise of Fascism in Italy In October of 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of followers known as the “black shirts”Benito Mussolini established a totalitarian regime in ItalyWith the support of the military, police, and government officials Mussolini was appointed “Il Duce”-the leader
15 The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitler rose to power during the early 1920sHitler set forth his beliefs of the Nazi Party in his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle)Hitler and the Nazi Party were guided by three beliefs; Uniting the German people creating a German Empire, Racial purification, national expansion
16 Civil War in SpainGermany and Italy lent support to the Nationalist insurrection led by general Francisco Franco in Spain.Spanish Civil war ensuedFranco’s forces eventually won in 1939 establishing Franco as Spain’s fascist dictator
17 Militarists Gain Control in Japan Success in Manchuria put the militarists firmly in control of Japan’s governmentIn July 1937, Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of BeijingThe Nanking Massacre or Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder, genocide and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking)Article: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter
18 The Axis Powers FormOn September 27, 1940, Imperial Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.Their objectives were to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influenceNazi Germany in Europe, Imperial Japan in Asia, and Fascist Italy in North Africa. The signatories of this alliance become known as the Axis Powers.
19 The Drift Towards War March 1938- Germany takes control of Austria September British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Agreement (appeased Hitler)September England and France surrender the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to GermanySeptember Germany takes control of the remainder of CzechoslovakiaAugust The Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact with HitlerNazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (left), Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (center), and Soviet foreign minister Viacheslav Molotov (right) at the signing of the nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. Moscow, Soviet Union, August 1939.
20 World War II Begins in Europe September 1, Germany invades Poland (Blitzkrieg)Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.The anti-German coalition (or later the Allied Powers) at the start of the war consisted of France, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the British Commonwealth nationsThe United States remained neutral refusing to take part in the warStukas over Poland 1939
21 The United States Moves Cautiously Away From Neutrality September Roosevelt and Congress pass a “cash-and-carry” policyReplaced Neutrality Acts allowing the sale of materials during wartime if used own ships and paid in cash immediatelySelective Service Act (draft) passed (1940)The first peacetime conscription in U.S. HistoryConscription is a government mandate requiring men to serve in military serviceMen years of age were mandated to register for military serviceCongress boosted defense spendingRoosevelt is elected to a third term breaking the tradition of two-term presidents established by WashingtonMarch 1941 Congress passed the Lend Lease Act “America the arsenal of Democracy”Ended the pretense of neutralityThe U.S. supplied materials to the allies
22 The U.S. Enters WWII“Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”-FDR
23 FDR Plans for WarThe Atlantic Charter was negotiated at the Atlantic Conference by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was issued as a joint declaration on 14 August 1941.Both countries pledged the following: collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seasThe charter became the basis of a new document called “A Declaration of the United Nations”The term United Nations was suggested by FDR to express the common purpose of the Allies
24 Japan Attacks the United States The U.S. knew an attack was coming – they were not sure where.The “where” would be the American base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.December 7, “a date that will live in infamy”
25 Reaction to Pearl Harbor Blame for being unprepared should not fall on the military commanders in Hawaii or on FDR.The military lacked sufficient airplanes to protect the area adequately. Intelligence was slow and unsure of exact location for a Japanese attack.Ultimately, responsibility lies with the American people for their reluctance to spend money on necessary defenses.The United States of America declared war on Japan the next day after the attack and three days later on Germany and Italy after the two Axis powers declared war on the United States