Presentation on theme: "U.S. Foreign Policy 1899-1941 and World War II Starts in Europe “When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere is in danger.”"— Presentation transcript:
U.S. Foreign Policy and World War II Starts in Europe “When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere is in danger.” Roosevelt
Imperialism The U.S. had acquired an “empire” (Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines) From 1899 to 1919, the U.S. wanted to preserve the status quo or “keep things the same”
What is imperialism?
American Imperialism a policy of extending a country’s power through diplomacy or military force – it occurs when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, and cultural life. Review: Crashcourse U.S. History#28: American Imperialism
World War I The great war disrupted the status quo. The U.S. entered the war in 1917 When the war ended in 1919, the U.S. did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the league of nations. The U.S. once again became isolationists, preferring to not become entangled in world affairs American Draft Card WWI
Treaty of Versailles Was the peace settlement signed after WWI ended in 1918 – Land was taken away from Germany – Army was reduced to 100,000, no tanks or submarines allowed – Loss of industrial territory made it hard to rebuild economy plus financial penalties linked to reparations – “War Guild Clause” – Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war – League of Nations was set up
League of Nations Founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended WWI. Principal mission was to maintain world peace Goals: – Prevent wars through collective security and disarmament and setting international disputes through negotiation and arbitration Major Flaw: It was unable to enforce its laws and mandates, it had no power to stop aggressors!
Isolation Americans disillusioned by the outcome of WWI were happy to leave foreign policy to their leaders American leaders believed that the world needed exactly what America needed-peace and prosperity
Isolation continued… U.S. foreign policy during the 1920s and 1930s pursued the goals of peace and prosperity through three tactics I.Washington Naval Conference in 1922 I.Agreed to disarmament by limiting size and number of battleships II.Halted an expensive arms race at the time II.Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 I.An international agreement in which signatories promised not to use war to resolve “disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them.” II.Signed by Germany, France, U.S., and most other nations followed III.The Stimson Doctrine in 1932 I. Non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force II.Policy followed Japan’s seizure of Manchuria in northeastern China
Rise of Dictators Threaten The World Nationalism-loyalty to one’s country above all else- led to the rise of powerful dictators Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individuals Totalitarian government exerted complete control over its citizens
Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin transformed the communist state into an agricultural and industrial power All private ownership of farms was abolished and replaced with collectives- large government owned farms The “Five Year Plan” outlined an industrial transformation that cost many Russian lives (estimates range between 8 to 20 million) However, by 1937, the Soviet Union became the second largest industrial power
Rise of Fascism in Italy In October of 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of followers known as the “black shirts” Benito Mussolini established a totalitarian regime in Italy With the support of the military, police, and government officials Mussolini was appointed “Il Duce”- the leader
The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitler rose to power during the early 1920s Hitler set forth his beliefs of the Nazi Party in his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler and the Nazi Party were guided by three beliefs; Uniting the German people creating a German Empire, Racial purification, national expansion
Civil War in Spain Germany and Italy lent support to the Nationalist insurrection led by general Francisco Franco in Spain. Spanish Civil war ensued Franco’s forces eventually won in 1939 establishing Franco as Spain’s fascist dictator
Militarists Gain Control in Japan Success in Manchuria put the militarists firmly in control of Japan’s government In July 1937, Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Beijing The Nanking Massacre or Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder, genocide and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking) Article: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter
The Axis Powers Form On September 27, 1940, Imperial Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Their objectives were to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influence Nazi Germany in Europe, Imperial Japan in Asia, and Fascist Italy in North Africa. The signatories of this alliance become known as the Axis Powers.
The Drift Towards War March Germany takes control of Austria September British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Agreement (appeased Hitler) September England and France surrender the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany September Germany takes control of the remainder of Czechoslovakia August The Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler Nazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (left), Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (center), and Soviet foreign minister Viacheslav Molotov (right) at the signing of the nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. Moscow, Soviet Union, August 1939.
World War II Begins in Europe September 1, Germany invades Poland (Blitzkrieg) Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The anti-German coalition (or later the Allied Powers) at the start of the war consisted of France, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the British Commonwealth nations The United States remained neutral refusing to take part in the war Stukas over Poland 1939
The United States Moves Cautiously Away From Neutrality September Roosevelt and Congress pass a “cash-and-carry” policy Replaced Neutrality Acts allowing the sale of materials during wartime if used own ships and paid in cash immediately Selective Service Act (draft) passed (1940) The first peacetime conscription in U.S. History Conscription is a government mandate requiring men to serve in military service Men years of age were mandated to register for military service Congress boosted defense spending Roosevelt is elected to a third term breaking the tradition of two-term presidents established by Washington March 1941 Congress passed the Lend Lease Act “America the arsenal of Democracy” Ended the pretense of neutrality The U.S. supplied materials to the allies
The U.S. Enters WWII “Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” -FDR
FDR Plans for War The Atlantic Charter was negotiated at the Atlantic Conference by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was issued as a joint declaration on 14 August Both countries pledged the following: collective security, disarmament, self- determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas The charter became the basis of a new document called “A Declaration of the United Nations” The term United Nations was suggested by FDR to express the common purpose of the Allies
Japan Attacks the United States The U.S. knew an attack was coming – they were not sure where. The “where” would be the American base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. December 7, “a date that will live in infamy” h?v=3VqQAf74fsE h?v=3VqQAf74fsE
Reaction to Pearl Harbor Blame for being unprepared should not fall on the military commanders in Hawaii or on FDR. The military lacked sufficient airplanes to protect the area adequately. Intelligence was slow and unsure of exact location for a Japanese attack. Ultimately, responsibility lies with the American people for their reluctance to spend money on necessary defenses. The United States of America declared war on Japan the next day after the attack and three days later on Germany and Italy after the two Axis powers declared war on the United States