Presentation on theme: "Megan Anderson Nicole Schumacher Kyle Schenkelberg Cassie Kowalenko."— Presentation transcript:
Megan Anderson Nicole Schumacher Kyle Schenkelberg Cassie Kowalenko
Introducing Writing Grades K-2 Before starting to write: Fine Motor Skills: Cutting paper (shapes, letters, numbers) Coloring (Builds muscle control) Stay within lines Chalk/White board (develops muscles in shoulders, arms, hands, and fingers) Trays filled with sand (trace letters into it) Shaving cream (trace letters into it) Create stencils (for students to trace) For Kindergartners: Teachers should emphasis tracing, coloring, and copying letters
Problems with Writing for Younger Grades Handwriting Problems: Slowness Incorrect Spacing Difficulty Messiness Illegible letters Too much or too little of pencil pressure Too much or not enough slant in letters
Things to look as a Teacher Pencil grip (is it correct? If not how to fix it?) (gripper or Zaner-Bloser) http://shop.zaner-bloser.com/c-3-handwriting-support.aspx http://shop.zaner-bloser.com/p-24-writing-frame.aspx Paper position Sitting correctly Same hand (while writing check to see if student is using same hands) Do students seem frustrated, nervous or emotional when writing? Does the student have a negative attitude while writing?
Traceable Letters (hand outs) Upper case Lower case Cursive Giving students lined paper Hand out examples of students’ work Compare how students have improved on their writing White Board Writing Use to practice writing names, words and such Easy to erase and fix problems Corrective Journals Students write what they hear. Example: note, they write nt Writing prompts Free writing Stamp books Forces the students to use their fine motor skills in their hands. Still creating sentences, just not with a pen or pencil
Statistics about Writing In a study of handwriting of 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd graders Of the 6 lower case letters (q, j, z, u, n, and k) accounted for 48% of the omissions, miscues, and illegibilities and when only non legible responses were consider 5 letters (q, z, u, a, and j) accounted for 54% of the miscues Common numbers students write wrong or non legible were 6 looks like a 0, 7 looks like a 9, and 9 looks like a 4.
Transition into Cursive Cursive is usually taught in 2 nd or 3 rd grade The best way to teach students is to start with the general word and then add tails and connections Ex. at Ex. hand There are four main strokes used also in cursive Slant stroke Understroke Downstroke Overstroke
Cursive Letter Families The “e’ family: e, l, h, f, b, and k The family with a handle to which the next letter is attached: b, o, v, w The family that emphasizes the correct formation of hump shaped letters: n, s, y The “c” family: c, a, d, o, q, g The hump family: n, m, v, y, x The family with tails in the back: f, q The family with tails in the front: g, p, y, z
Modifications Modification for students Teacher creates name out of puffy pain in dots, students trace the name with figure (DCD) Do same thing for the ABC’s This allows students to use fine motor skills because the student was unable to communicate verbally. Some one with cerebral Palsy might use a machine that can type out what they are saying so they can still create letters and create sentences
Hand Writing & Written Lang. 3 rd - 6 th grade When writing becomes a form of meaningful self expression
Written Expression *requires complex thought processes* Five Components of Written Expression: 1. Fluency 2. Syntax 3. Vocabulary 4. Structure 5. Content
Activities: Combine related sentences into one Synonyms and antonyms game ( www.enchantedlearning.com/synonyms/ ) verbs-write past tense form noun-write the plural form dochild rideboy eatdeer singhero walkstory Scrambled sentences- put in order
Activities continued… Structure ( mechanics-punctuation, capitalization, and rules of grammar )- DOL Content ( accuracy, ideas, and organization )- Scrambled sentences- put in order *writing prompts* http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganiz ers/storymap/ Graphic organizers help students analyze and write a story **Fast-Writes**
Modifications Descriptive Writing- Make a sensory chart Organization- graphic organizers, organized lists, checklists (hand out) Instruction in Writing- Increase instruction time/review and edit time Teach written language as an integrated process Coordinating written language activities with different content areas
Written Expression Grades Seven Eight and Nine http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Academic_Excelle nce/Academic_Standards/Language_Arts/index.html http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Academic_Excelle nce/Academic_Standards/Language_Arts/index.html
Thinking and Writing What do you think? -Do we write to discover ideas? -Which comes first: Thinking or Writing
Minnesota Standards Grade Seven Types of Writing Poetry Stories Essays Editorials Letters Directions Research reports
Why do we write? Social Letters Description Composition Comparison Persuade Review Speech Answer a question Narrative
Elements of Composition The student will engage in a writing process, with attention to context, organization, focus, quality of ideas and a purpose. 1. Create multiple paragraph compositions 2. Create narratives 3. Create informative reports 4. Employ composing processes to develop writing 5. Consider the intended audience when composing text.
The Writing Process Five Stages of Writing: Prewriting Writing the 1 st Draft Revising Proofreading, Editing Making the final draft/publishing
Seventh Grade Standards Continued Spelling Grammar and Usage Research Handwriting and Word Processing Write legibly Keyboarding skills
Standards 9-12 Writing -Narrative, expository, descriptive, persuasive, + critical modes. Handwriting -Locally determined Focus on real life events -Business letters, Lists, Job Application
Research Instruction needs to be clear and organized. Instruction must provide: -Individualized support-Repetition -Progress monitoring-Feedback
Tests of Written Expression Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) -Measure short response only -Subtest include: -Writing samples-Writing Fluency -Editing Test of Written Language, Fourth Edition (TOWL-4) -Contrived writing -Spontaneous writing
Test of Written Expression Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-II) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-3) Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)
Myths about Written Language Written language is separate from oral language Handwriting is not important
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