Presentation on theme: "Help you’re students serf or sale the grate see of English! Presented by Mary T. Castañuela."— Presentation transcript:
Help you’re students serf or sale the grate see of English! Presented by Mary T. Castañuela
BICS CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Conversational Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Textbook language The Nature of Language Proficiency: Cummins, 1979
Levels of Language Proficiency Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) – Everyday language – Communicative – Universal across all native speakers – Not related to academic achievement – Usually attained within 2 years
Levels of Language Proficiency Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) – Abstract, decontextualized language – Non-interpersonal – Related to literacy skills and academic achievement – CALP in L1 and L2 overlap despite differences in surface features – Usually develops in 5 to 7 years or longer depending on individual and contextual variables
Academic Vocabulary Subject AreaLevel 1 (K-2) Level 2 (3-5) Level 3 (6-8) Level 4 (9-12) TOTALS Mathematics80190201214685 Science100166225282773 History General History U.S. History World History 162 0 560 154 245 319 123 301 270 148 297 1,311 425 843 ELA83245247223798 TOTALS4251,5601,4161,4344,835
Academic Vocabulary These terms are drawn from the national standards. Some are critically important to the understanding of a given subject area, others are useful but not critical, and still others are interesting but not very useful.
No Wonder our ELLs struggle! But really – with what?
ELLs struggle with the following: Basic words (table, chart) Correct meaning of simple words (state, power) Connectors (so that, thereby) Cognates (vapor, función) Multisyllabic words (inconsistently) Homophones, homographs, & homonyms -Laura F. Vega, Dariusz Zdunczyk, &Liliana Minaya-Rowe
Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text. Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure. Students need 12 production opportunities to own a word. -Laura F. Vega, Dariusz Zdunczyk, &Liliana Minaya-Rowe
Tier 1, 2, & 3 Words Tier 1 – Basic words needed in everyday communication Tier 2 – general but sophisticated words – “mortar” words that hold the content specific area words together Tier 3 – Content specific – “brick” words
Dutro & Moran (2003) refer to “brick” and “mortar” terms as a way to distinguish between content-specific vocabulary and general cross-curricular academic language.
Tier 3 Words Equation Photosynthesis Simile Democracy Hypothesis Acute
Tier 2 Words also include the following categories of words across academic content areas Homonyms – They have the same spelling. – They have the same pronunciation. – However they have different meanings depending on the context. Homographs – They have the same spelling. – They have different pronunciations. – They have different meanings.
Tier 2 Words also include the following categories of words across academic content areas Homophones – They have a different spelling. – They have the same pronunciation. – They have different meanings.
Homonyms Some of the most troublesome words for ELLs are multiple meaning words. ELLs typically only know one meaning and it may not be relevant to the context. Bill
Homonyms Some examples are: bank table right leg side right
WordMath ContextELA ContextScience Context Social Studies Context MeterThe perimeter of the square is 8 meters. The most common meter in English poetry is iambic pentameter. Acceleration is usually expressed in meters per second. The results of the mock election will be seen as a meter of the actual outcome. TablePlease fill out the table on your worksheet with your answers. When selecting an appropriate book, make sure you look at the table of contents. While you are working on your experiment, make sure you fill out the table on page 109. The President has tabled the discussion at this point.
Homographs Other troublesome words for ELLs are homographs. ELLs typically only know one pronunciation and one meaning and it may not be relevant to the context. wind
Homographs Some examples are: wind bow present close wound live
Homophones Another category of troublesome words for ELLs are homographs. ELLs typically only know one spelling and one meaning and it may not be relevant to the context. centscent sent
How do we help our ELLs? The “secret to teaching vocabulary is keeping students interested in a word long enough that their minds will have time to absorb the many possible meanings.” Nilsen and Nilsen (2003)
How do we help our ELLs? Direct explicit instruction Rich discussions Teacher modeling
What are some activities that I can implement within my classroom? Frayer Model This is/This is NOT… organizer Word Walls Vocabulary Notebooks – Marzano Go Fish Game Phone Game Foldables Songs
2007 The Florida Center for Reading Research http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartThree.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartThree.pdf Know or No Activity Multiple Meaning Match Activity All For One Activity Undercover Meaning Activity Defining Depictions Activity What Do You Mean? Activity Word-by-Word Activity
Since ewe are knot bound two you're chair ewe are now bound two go two you're next cession and afterwards ewe wheel bee home bound..
Region 15 Education Service Center 325-481-4068 firstname.lastname@example.org
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