7A hospital patient had a serious bacterial infection that required treatment with strong anitbiotics. The patient recovered from the infection, but experienced side effects, including oral fungal infections and digestive problems. What is the most probable reason for the side effects?A) The patient experienced an allergic reaction to the antibioticsB) The patient had not fully recovered from the infection.C) The anitbiotic killed both harmful and beneficial bacteriaD) The anitbiotic encouraged an overgrowth of beneficial bacteria
8AnswerC) The anitbiotic killed both harmful and beneficial bacteria
10When a new volcanic island forms, the pioneer species is the first species to successfully inhabit the island. Which organism is the most likely candidate for a pioneer species?A) A seagull hatched from an egg laid on the islandB) A palm tree grown from a coconut that washed onto shoreC) Algae spores deposited on rocks by the windD) Insects larvae carried on a piece of driftwood
11AnswerC) Algae spores deposited on rocks by the wind
12Louise places 1 bacterium in a Petri dish at time 0 Louise places 1 bacterium in a Petri dish at time 0. The population increases exponetially, doubling every hour, and there are no limiting factors. How many bacteria will be in the Petri dish after 6 hrs ?A) 6B) 16C) 32D) 64
14A flagellated protozoan lives within the intestines of a termite and helps it digest wood. What type of relationship most likely exists between the protozoan and the termite?A) competitiveB) MutualisticC) ParasiticD) Predatory
19Which path best illustrates one way energy travels through a forest ecosystem consisting of mouse owl, plant, snake, and sun?A) SunPlantOwlSnakeMouseB) SunPlantMouseSnakeOwlC) PlantSunSnakeOwlMouseD) MouseOwlSnakePlantSun
25Jenna’s favorite breakfast food, papaya, contains significant amounts of the enzyme papain (a protease). What substance does papain help digest?A) carbohydratesB) fatty acidsC) nucleic acidsD) proteins
33How do enzyme speed up chemical reactions? A) By reducing activation energyB) By reducing energy produced by the reactionC) By increasing activation energyD) By increasing energy producing by the reaction
42Why do most plants appear green because chlorophyll?
43AnswerBecause they do not absorb green light they reflect it.
44Plant cells contain both a cell wall and a cell membrane Plant cells contain both a cell wall and a cell membrane. What is the composition of the cell wall and where is it located in relation to the cell membrane?
50A scienctist add an specific antibody to the actin protein to a prepared culture of macrophages. The macrophages exhibit active movement before, but not after, treatment. What is the most accurate conclusion about the function of actin?A) Actin depolymerizes mircrotublar arraysB) Actin plays a role in the function of pseudopodiaC) Actin disrupts cellular activities in the cytoskeletonD) Actin guides the movement of chromosomes in macrophages.
51AnswerB) Actin plays a role in the function of pseudopodia
52Red blood cells have a salt content of 0. 9% Red blood cells have a salt content of 0.9%. When a mircrobiologist places red blood cells in pure water, osmosis occurs. What net movement of a substance occurs in this instance of osmosis?A) Water molecules move out of the cellsB) Water molecules move into the cellsC) Salt ions move out of the cellsD) Salt ions move into the cells
54Megan examines a liver cell and observes an organelle with many smooth-sided channels. Which activity would identify this organelle as the Golgi apparatus?A) Digestion of macromolecules and old organellesB) Detoxificaiton of poisionous molecules within the cellC) Harvesting of energy from organic molecules to make ATPD) processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export
55AnswerD) processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export
56By what process does a sodium ion exit the cell through the plasma membrane? A) Active transportB) ExocytosisC) Facilitated DiffusionD) Osmosis
58A Paramecium lives in an environment that is hypotonic to its cytoplasm. How does the Paramecium maintain homeostasis under these conditions?A) It expels water using contractile vacuolesB) It expels excess water using the sodium-potassium pumpC) It absorbs additional water through osmosisD) It absorbs additional sodium through facilitated diffusion
59AnswerA) It expels water using contractile vacuoles
60Which process generates most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration? A) Electron transport chainB) FermentationC) GlycolysisD) Krebs cycle
62While investigating yeast respiration, a researcher detects ethanol in the yeast culture. Which molecules does the yeast culture also contain?A) Lactic acid and ATPB) Oxygen and lactic acidC) Carbon dioxide and ATPD) Oxygen and carbon dioxide
69DNA and RNA have many structual similarities DNA and RNA have many structual similarities.Which structure in DNA and RNA is similar?A) Prine basesBe) Pyrimidine basesC) Type of sugarD) Attached protein
79Which criterion is NOT necessarily true of a trait that has evolved through natural selection? A) It is heritableB) It varies among individualsC) It increases individuals’ life spansD) It influences individuals’ reproductive success
81When comparing 2 populations of animals, which statement most likely indicates that they are the same species?A) They produce fertile offspringB) They inhabit the same general areaC) Their outward appearance is similarD) They consume the same type of diet
85In humans, pigmented skin is dominant to non- pigmented skin(albinism) In humans, pigmented skin is dominant to non- pigmented skin(albinism). What is the genotype of an individual with albinism?A) carrierB) HeterozygousC) Homozygous DominantD) Homozygous recessive
88AnswerC) AaOne of her daughter are affecting meaning they are (XaXa)and one son meaning he would have these alleles (XaY) So the mother had to give them each at least one of the recessive alleles since she had two children which didn’t show the trait and she herself doesn’t show it so she has to have a dominant allele.
89A punnett square shows all of the following EXCEPT: A) all possible results of a genetic cross.B) the genotypes of the offspring.C) the alleles in the gametes of each parent.D) the actual results of a genetic cross.
90A trisomy of chromosome 21 causes what condition? A) AlbinismB) DwarfismC) Down SyndromeD) Color blindness
92Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a sex-linked recessive trait that afects the nervous system. In one family, the father, mother, daughter, and elder son do not have ALD, While the younger son has ALD. Who must be a carrier of the ALD allele?A) FatherB) MotherC) DaughterD) Elder Sone
94Which child could NOT be born to these parents: a female (XBXb) and a male(XBY)? color-blind daughterColor-blind sonDaughter with normal visionSon with normal visionIn humans, red-green color blindness is a recessive, se-linked trait. The chromosomes and alleles associated with color blindness are represented in this chart
96Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which excess mucus accumulates in the lungs and digestive system of affected individuals. Males and females must inherit 2 alleles with the mutation to have the disease. What is the mode of inheritance of cystic fibrosis?A) Autosomal dominantB) Autosomal recessiveC) Sex-linked dominantD) Sex-linked recessive