Presentation on theme: "Earth SC-202 Physical Geology. Instructor Prof. Steven Dutch Office: LS 402 Phone: 465-2246 Home Page: Office."— Presentation transcript:
Earth SC-202 Physical Geology
Instructor Prof. Steven Dutch Office: LS 402 Phone: Home Page: Office Hours MWF 10:30-11:30, TR 9:30-10:50
Rocks Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Volcanoes Intrusions Weathering Soils Erosion Water Underground Surface Oceans Wind Glaciers Fossils Earth History Earth’s Interior Earthquakes Mountains Plate Tectonics Other Planets Mineral Resources What is Physical Geology?
Syllabus Introduction to the course Minerals Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Weathering and Erosion Evolution of Landscapes Sedimentary Rocks Evolution, Fossils, Geologic Time Glaciers Wind and Wave Erosion Metamorphism and Deformation Earthquakes and Earth's Interior Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Resources from the Earth Geology of other Worlds
Exams and Grading Midterm I50 points Midterm II50 points Lab100 points Final80 points Field Trip20 points Attendance10 points Total300 points A270+ AB B BC C CD D
Field Trip Dates Mandatory – Absence Excuse Required 8:00 LS Parking Lot, Return 4:15 Casual Clothing – No strenuous hiking Bring a lunch and fluids Rest stops provided Put on your calendar! No excuses!
Lab Instructor: Jennifer Wessel Enroll in one section 100 points total
Expectations Commitment – Focus in class Professional Conduct – No talking, texting – Stay whole period – Stay vertical and awake Use Syllabus Know your ID number or bring ID to exams
Sample exam question Which is the most desirable property in a gemstone? a.High hardness b.Low hardness c.Excellent cleavage d.Density
Signs of Trouble Not making connections – Lecture, lab, text, on-line, exams Not knowing your grade Not knowing what to study for Not knowing what’s on syllabus
Who Geoscientists Are: About 30,000 in the U.S. Globally, in rich and poor countries, about one per $50 million GNP. Mostly male but changing rapidly (now about 25% female in U.S.) Still less than 10% minority in U.S. (moving up slowly)
Where Geologists Work 40 % Private Sector 30 % Academic 30 % Government
What Geologists Do: Locate Geologic Resources Geologic Hazard Mitigation – Geological and Mining Engineering – Site Study – Land-Use Planning Environmental Protection – Environmental Impact – Ground Water and Waste Management Basic Research (Furnishes fundamental knowledge for the applications)
Some Unique Aspects of Geology Importance of Relationships Sequential Spatial Importance of Time Distinctive Problems of Evidence Slow Rates Rare Events Destruction of Evidence Inaccessibility
Some Geologic Rates Cutting of Grand Canyon 2 km/3 m.y. = 1 cm/15 yr Uplift of Alps 5 km/10 m.y. = 1 cm/20 yr. Opening of Atlantic 5000 km/180 m.y. = 2.8 cm/yr. Uplift of White Mtns. (N.H.) Granites 8 km/150 m.y. = 1 cm/190 yr.
Some Geologic Rates Movement of San Andreas Fault 5 cm/yr = 7 m/140 yr. Growth of Mt. St. Helens 3 km/30,000 yr = 10 cm/yr. Deposition of Niagara Dolomite 100 m/ 1 m.y.? = 1 cm/100 yr.
1 Second = 1 Year 35 minutes to birth of Christ 1 hour+ to pyramids 3 hours to retreat of glaciers from Wisconsin 12 days = 1 million years 2 years to extinction of dinosaurs 14 years to age of Niagara Escarpment 31 years = 1 billion years
Some Unique Aspects of Geology (Continued) Reliance on Inference and Deduction Intrinsically "Unsolvable" Problems Ancient Landscapes Mass Extinctions Ancient Ocean Basins
Scientific Principles in Geology Parsimony (K.I.S.S.) Superposition Uniformitarianism Using these, plus observation, we establish facts about Earth Processes
Parsimony The simplest explanation that fits all the data is preferred Doesn’t guarantee that things must be simple! Theories with lots of ad hoc or unsupported ideas are probably wrong.
Parsimony: What is the best interpretation of this well data?
Parsimony This? Or This?
Parsimony Rock layers throughout NE Wisconsin are nearly flat and little disturbed Glacial deposits are always on top of bedrock Therefore this is the most likely interpretation
One Implication of Parsimony How do we know the laws of nature are the same everywhere? Out to the farthest stars, everything seems to obey the same laws of nature We find nothing in the rocks to suggest the laws of nature were different in the past Either: The laws of nature change but just happen to produce effects that look like the presently- known laws of nature – or – The laws of nature really are the same everywhere
Another Implication of Parsimony We live in a universe of patterns If someone claims there is an exception to a known pattern, the simplest explanation is that he/she is wrong Therefore the burden of proof in science is on the challenger
Superposition Whodunit? Last night, one of Green Bay’s premier beer can collections was stolen The only clue is footprints in the snow The thief was the last person to leave the premises
The Suspects The NephewHas a seeing-eye dog The MaidDrives a car The CookRides a motorcycle The HandymanRides a bike The ButlerWalks to work
The Crime Scene The Nephew has a seeing-eye dog The Maid Drives a car The Cook Rides a motorcycle The Handyman Rides a bike The Butler Walks to work
A Contact: Mindoro Cut, Wisconsin
Uniformitarianism Continuity of Cause and Effect Apply Cause and Effect to Future - Prediction Apply Cause and Effect to Present - Technology Apply Cause and Effect to Past - Uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism does not mean: Catastrophes never occur Physical Conditions on Earth never Change Earth has always been the same Physical processes always occur at the same rate or intensity Laws of Physics have always been the same
Uniformitarianism does mean: Using our knowledge of physical laws, we can test: Whether catastrophes have occurred Whether physical conditions on earth have changed, and if so, how (ice ages, warm periods, high or low sea level, etc.) Whether physical laws themselves have changed in time, or elsewhere in the universe.