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Discovering Earth’s History Chapter 12, Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovering Earth’s History Chapter 12, Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering Earth’s History Chapter 12, Section 1

2 Rocks Record Earth History Rocks record geological events and changing life forms of the past Rocks record geological events and changing life forms of the past Erosion has removed much of Earth’s rock record, but enough remains to study and interpret the past Erosion has removed much of Earth’s rock record, but enough remains to study and interpret the past The geologic time scale revolutionized the way people think about time and how they perceive our planet The geologic time scale revolutionized the way people think about time and how they perceive our planet We have learned that Earth is much older than anyone had previously imagined and that its surface and interior have been changed by the same geological processes that continue today We have learned that Earth is much older than anyone had previously imagined and that its surface and interior have been changed by the same geological processes that continue today

3 John Wesley Powell

4 A Brief History of Geology The primary goal of geologists is to interpret Earth’s history The primary goal of geologists is to interpret Earth’s history Uniformitarianism – the concept that processes that shaped Earth in the past are essentially the same as those operating today Uniformitarianism – the concept that processes that shaped Earth in the past are essentially the same as those operating today The forces and processes that we observe today have been at work for a very long time The forces and processes that we observe today have been at work for a very long time The acceptance of uniformitarianism meant the acceptance of a very long history for Earth The acceptance of uniformitarianism meant the acceptance of a very long history for Earth Remember, to us it may seem that a landscape is unchanging in our lifetimes, but they are changing on a scale of hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years Remember, to us it may seem that a landscape is unchanging in our lifetimes, but they are changing on a scale of hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years

5 Concept Check How do the laws that govern geological processes change through time? How do the laws that govern geological processes change through time? The same laws that operated in the past still operate today. The same laws that operated in the past still operate today.

6 Relative Dating—Key Principles To establish a relative time scale, a few basic rules or principles had to be applied To establish a relative time scale, a few basic rules or principles had to be applied These principles were major breakthroughs, and their discovery and acceptance was an important scientific achievement These principles were major breakthroughs, and their discovery and acceptance was an important scientific achievement Relative Dating – process by which rocks are placed in their proper sequence or order Relative Dating – process by which rocks are placed in their proper sequence or order Relative dating tells us the sequence in which events occurred, not how long ago they occurred Relative dating tells us the sequence in which events occurred, not how long ago they occurred Nicolaus Steno, a Danish anatomist, geologist, and priest ( ), is credited with describing a set of geologic observations that are the basis of relative dating Nicolaus Steno, a Danish anatomist, geologist, and priest ( ), is credited with describing a set of geologic observations that are the basis of relative dating

7 Relative Dating Nicolaus Steno

8 Law of Superposition Law of Superposition – states that in any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below Law of Superposition – states that in any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below This rule also applies for other surface-deposited materials, such as lava flows and beds of ash from volcanic eruptions This rule also applies for other surface-deposited materials, such as lava flows and beds of ash from volcanic eruptions

9 Law of Superposition

10 Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality – layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position Principle of Original Horizontality – layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position If you see rock layers that are flat, it means they haven’t been disturbed and are still in their original position If you see rock layers that are flat, it means they haven’t been disturbed and are still in their original position If the rocks are tilted, they must have been moved sometime after deposition If the rocks are tilted, they must have been moved sometime after deposition

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12 Concept Check To what rock type can the law of superposition and the principle of original horizontality be best applied? To what rock type can the law of superposition and the principle of original horizontality be best applied? Undisturbed sedimentary rocks Undisturbed sedimentary rocks

13 Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships – a rock or fault is younger than any rock or fault through which it cuts Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships – a rock or fault is younger than any rock or fault through which it cuts For an example, look at the following figure For an example, look at the following figure

14 Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships

15 Inclusions Sometimes inclusions can help the relative dating process Sometimes inclusions can help the relative dating process Inclusions are pieces of one rock unit that are contained within another Inclusions are pieces of one rock unit that are contained within another The rock unit next to the one containing the inclusions must have been there first in order to provide the rock fragments The rock unit next to the one containing the inclusions must have been there first in order to provide the rock fragments Therefore, the rock containing inclusions is the younger of the two Therefore, the rock containing inclusions is the younger of the two

16 Inclusions

17 Unconformities Unconformity – a surface that represents a break in the rock record, caused by erosion or lack of deposition (angular unconformity, disconformity, and nonconformity) Unconformity – a surface that represents a break in the rock record, caused by erosion or lack of deposition (angular unconformity, disconformity, and nonconformity) An unconformity represents a long period during which deposition stopped, erosion removed previously formed rocks, and then deposition resumed An unconformity represents a long period during which deposition stopped, erosion removed previously formed rocks, and then deposition resumed An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred Two sedimentary layers that are separated by an erosional surface are called a disconformity Two sedimentary layers that are separated by an erosional surface are called a disconformity Nonconformities mean the erosional surface separates older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks from younger sedimentary rocks Nonconformities mean the erosional surface separates older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks from younger sedimentary rocks

18 Grand Canyon Cross-Section

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20 Concept Check What are the three basic types of unconformities? What are the three basic types of unconformities? Angular unconformity, disconformity, and nonconformity Angular unconformity, disconformity, and nonconformity

21 Correlation of Rock Layers In order to develop a geologic time scale that can be applied to the entire Earth, rocks of similar age in different regions must be matched up In order to develop a geologic time scale that can be applied to the entire Earth, rocks of similar age in different regions must be matched up Correlation – establishing the sequence of rocks of similar age in different areas Correlation – establishing the sequence of rocks of similar age in different areas By correlating the rocks from one place to another, it is possible to create a more complete view of the geologic history of a region By correlating the rocks from one place to another, it is possible to create a more complete view of the geologic history of a region

22 Correlation in the Colorado Plateau

23 Assignment Read Chapter 12, Section 1 (pg ) Read Chapter 12, Section 1 (pg ) Do Chapter 12 Assessment #1-33 (pg ) Do Chapter 12 Assessment #1-33 (pg ) For Section 1: Do #’s 1, 2, 7, 9-10, For Section 1: Do #’s 1, 2, 7, 9-10, 12-15


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