Presentation on theme: "What's Up With LCGFT (LC's Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials)? Amy Pennington Catalog Librarian, Pius XII Memorial Library, Saint Louis."— Presentation transcript:
1 What's Up With LCGFT (LC's Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials)? Amy PenningtonCatalog Librarian, Pius XII Memorial Library, Saint Louis UniversityMissouri Library Association ConferenceOct. 4, 2012CaveatsImpetus for this came out of confusion among our catalogers – things seemed to be changing often – everyone’s practice seemed to vary – tried to sit down and figure out what was what. Still somewhat confused and things are still changing and there’s still not a lot of consistency in practice!
2 LCGFT: What are they and how are they different from LCSH? Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival MaterialsThey describe what the item/resource *is* rather than what the item/resource is *about*‘Documentary films’ as a subject heading (LCSH) would be added to a record for a book *about* documentary films650_0 Documentary films.‘Documentary films’ as a genre/form term would be added to a record for a documentary film itself655_7 Documentary films. $2 lcgftThey were originally part of LCSH – then separated out into their own index – May 2011Old headings (with LCCN prefix ‘sh’) were marked for deletion and new ones (with LCCN prefix ‘gf’) created
3 Example of old (now deleted) genre term authority record:
4 Current LCGFT authority record Note the LCCN with ‘sh’ prefix that was copied from the deleted record and entered in 010 $zSubj ‘z’ = other040 $f lcgft
5 Are LCGFT the only genre/form terms? Nope!There are lots of controlled vocabularies/thesauri that include genre/form terms, including:Getty’s Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)LC’s GSAFD (Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc.) – though it’s likely that LCGFT for literature will replace this…LCSH (some LCSH can be used as genre/form terms – more on this in a few slides!)Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) – provides for some publication types (which are essentially “forms”)LC’s Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM)Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloging (RBMS – Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of ACRL)Newspaper Genre List
6 What’s the difference between a form and a genre? Form is defined as “a characteristic of works with a particular format and/or purpose.”Moving image examples: Short, Animation, DocumentaryLaw examples: Treaties, Statutes and codes, WillsGenre “refers to categories of works that are characterized by similar plots, themes, settings, situations, and characters.”Moving image examples: Western, Thriller, Fantasy, ComedyLiterature examples: Mysteries, Historical fiction, Fairy talesLCGFT often combines the two in one termHorror films, Comedy films, Fantasy television programsThe first part of the term is the genre while the second part is the form
7 Moving toward a “faceted” system Terms are a single word or phrase that contain only one concept (or possibly include both a form and a genre in some cases…) and that are entirely contained within $aNo subdivision of any kind is allowed in LCGFTSignificant word brought to the front, not combined with other significant words‘Sports films’ and ‘Fantasy films’ and ‘Feature films’ instead of ‘Fantasy sports films’ or ‘Sports feature films’Provides general collocation of “like” items while allowing for post-search limitingTerms are not intended to repeat data already found elsewhere in the bibliographic record (language, etc.)
8 Types of terms already “authorized”: LCGFT are being implemented on a discipline-by-discipline basisMoving images (films, television programs, and video recordings)Spoken-word recorded sounds (including radio programs)Legal materialsCartographic materialsAll of these are currently included in the genre/form term list and are usable!Can be found in the ‘Genre’ index in OCLC ConnexionLC Authorities website (included in ‘Subject’ index)ClassWebSupplemental Vocabularies volume of LCSH
9 Projects still in process (or not yet in process): Music – LC working with Music Library AssociationHave begun to develop a new thesaurus of terms representing vocabulary for the medium of performance of musical worksCeltic harp, Bongo, Cell phones, Voice (Musical medium of performance)Also a list of terms describing genres and forms of musical worksBlues (Music), Fiddle tunes, Sacred songsReligion – LC working with The American Theological Library AssociationLiteratureAll LCSH form subdivisions are being looked at – some will be recommended as genre/form headingsAbstracts, Pamphlets, Quotations, Rules, Diaries, DictionariesOther projects if requested, pending the approval of LC Acquisitions and Bibliographic Directorate managers
10 MARC tagging/coding for LCGFT: 655_7 [Term]. $2 lcgftLC does not allow for any type of subdivision (geographic, topical, chronological, form) with genre/form terms.Many ask “Why??!!”The main reason for this goes back to the desire for a “faceted” systemMuch debate on the issue!Example - Title: American Map Virginia state road atlas655_7 Road maps. $2 lcgft655_7 Atlases. $2 lcgftAll of the road maps that the library holds will be collocated, without regard for the form (e.g., folded sheet map, atlas, wall map, digital map). The search can then be limited to atlases, if desired.
11 Using LCSH as Genre/Form LC *does* tell us we can use certain LCSH as genre/form terms and code them as 655 fields!For disciplines not yet included in the term list (i.e. literature)“If the scope note [of the LCSH] says that the heading is used for works of a given type, then it can be used in a 655 field. If the scope note says that a heading is used for works about (or on) a given topic, then it cannot be assigned to a 655 field. If there is no scope note, then the cataloger should use his or her best judgment.”655_0 Short stories. [note 2nd indicator 0 for LCSH; no $2 needed]655_7 Interactive art. $2 local [scope note specifies heading is for works on art, not the works of art themselves…]See LC’s FAQ, Q #35 for more info -Problems with this include “split file” issues in our catalogs
12 More on using LCSH as Genre/Form List of LCSH topical headings usable as form/genre headings by Joel HahnNot necessarily authoritative, but very helpful!View list by category or entire list sorted alphabetically
13 Cartographic Materials (Maps!) Cartographic headings have been simplified (and are now more “faceted”): Before: 651_0 Alamo Reservoir $v Maps, Bathymetric. After: 651_0 Alamo Reservoir $v Maps. 655_7 Bathymetric maps. $2 lcgft Those form subdivisions for specific types of maps have been cancelled; the entry order was reversed so that the specific type of map comes first. These changes are resulting in a lot of necessary bibliographic file maintenance! Also, recently a discussion paper was put out regarding treatment of globes in LCGFT (LC’s PSD (Policy and Standards Division) works with LC’s Geography and Maps Division on these matters)
14 Types of terms for moving images: GenreComedy films, Documentary films, Fantasy television programsDurationFeature films, Short filmsFiction/NonfictionCan (should?) we use these as well as more specific terms – OLAC (Online Audiovisual Catalogers) best practices say yes to both – it’s okay to use terms at different levels of hierarchyAccessibilityVideo recordings for the hearing impaired, Video recordings for people with visual disabilitiesGuidance on applying moving image and radio program genre/form terms can be found in Subject Headings Manual (SHM), instruction sheets H 1913 and HLC (PSD) says separate documentation for applying LCGFT is forthcoming (will be separated out from SHM)
15 More on moving images:“Character- and franchise-based terms” cancelled (ca. 90 of them)Before: 655_7 Friday the 13th films. $2 lcgftAfter: _7 Slasher films. $2 lcgft AND650 _0 Voorhees, Jason (Fictitious character) $v Drama.Before: 655_7 Pirates of the Caribbean films. $2 lcgftAfter: _7 Pirate films. $2 lcgft AND655_7 Comedy films. $2 lcgft AND650_0 Sparrow, Jack (Fictitious character) $v Drama.Check tagging on these…
16 A few more “character- or franchise-based” examples: Before: 655_7 Harry Potter films. $2 lcgftAfter: _7 Fantasy films. $2 lcgft AND650_0 Potter, Harry (Fictitious character)$v Drama. AND650_0 Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry (Imaginary organization) $v Drama.Before: 655_7 Toy Story films. $2 lcgftAfter: _7 Comedy films. $2 lcgft655_7 Children’s films. $2 lcgft655_7 Computer animation films. $2 lcgftWhy did they decide to cancel these?LCSH terms often took care of the character- or franchise-specific aspectTerms were not being consistently applied“Library of Congress to Cancel LCGFT Character- and Franchise-Based Terms for Moving Images (November 23, 2011)” -Add link to announcement w/examples
17 Moving images: Goldfinger Goldfinger (a James bond film)650 _0 Bond, James (Fictitious character) $v Drama.655 _7 Action and adventure films. $2 lcgft655 _7 Spy films. $2 lcgft655 _7 Film adaptations. $2 lcgft655 _7 Feature films. $2 lcgft655 _7 Fiction films. $2 lcgft655_7 Video recordings for the hearing impaired. $2 lcgftSome genres, some forms, different hierarchiesSpies DramaEspionage Drama
18 Sports filmsSport-specific terms have also been cancelled! For a film such as Bull Durham… Before: 655_7 Baseball films. $2 lcgft After: 650_0 Baseball $v Drama. 655_7 Sports films. $2 lcgft Decision followed the same logic that led to the cancellation of the character- and franchise-based terms “Library of Congress to Cancel LCGFT Sport-Specific Terms for Moving Images (April 24, 2012) -
19 Local options for moving images: OLAC (Online Audiovisual Catalogers) put out a best practices document and recommends some things you can do locallyLibrary of Congress Genre-Form Thesaurus (LCGFT) for Moving Images: Best Practices -Geographic, language, national aspectsLC does not specifically provide for/allow this using genre/form fields (though they are addressed in other places in the bibliographic record)Genre/form terms are not to be subdivided at all, according to LCBut OLAC says, for a film produced in France with the dialogue in French, you could do the following:655 _7 Motion pictures $z France. $2 local655 _7 French language films. $2 localIf the action of the film also takes place in France, that would be brought out in geographic subject headings with Drama
20 I want to start using these I want to start using these! How can my library acquire LCGFT authority records?Authority records are distributed through three main mechanisms:Through the MARC Distribution Service (MDS), which distributes LCGFT authority records as part of its Subject-Authorities product. MDS provides records in MARC 21 and MARCXML formats via FTP. This fee-based subscription service provides new and updated records on a weekly basis.Through LC Authorities ( a free web-based database that allows for browsing, display, and download (in MARC 21 format) of individual authority records.Through LC’s SKOS-based interface, Authorities and Vocabularies ( which allows for browsing, display, and visualization of LCGFT terms, as well as the downloading (in RDF/XML, N-Triples, and JSON formats) of the entire LCSH and LCGFT files.[Through a 3rd party authorities vendor (Marcive, etc.)]LCGFT terms are also available for viewing online through Classification Web (‘Search Genre/Form Terms’)Searchable in the ‘Genre’ index in OCLC ConnexionAlso available in printed form as part of Library of Congress Subject Headings (though it will eventually be separated out)ClassWeb shows you hierarchies – start with Fiction Films – see narrower terms – Crime, Epic, Haunted House, etc.
21 Searched ‘Fiction films’ in Genre/Form in ClassWeb:
22 Can I propose new genre/form terms? FAQ Q27: Is there any documentation about proposing new and revised genre/form terms?A: Guidance on proposing moving image and radio program genre/form terms can be found in the Subject Headings Manual (SHM), instruction sheets H 1913 and H , respectively. For general information on references, scope notes, and the like, other SHM instruction sheets, particularly H 187-H 400, should be consulted. Additionally, catalogers can use the approved genre/form terms as patterns for new proposals. SACO libraries should consult the SACO web page ( for technical procedures on making proposals.SACO = Subject Authority Cooperative Program; part of PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging) -FAQ REVISED Q28: Who may propose new genre/form terms, and in what disciplines?A: Library of Congress catalogers and SACO libraries working with moving images, non-musical sound recordings, and cartographic materials may propose genre/form terms as needed. The date on which SACO libraries may contribute proposals for law materials will be announced when it is available.FAQ Q29: May SACO libraries submit proposals to revise genre/form authority records?A: SACO proposals to revise existing genre/form authority records may be submitted through the same SACO workstream that is used for proposed updates to subject authority records. The proposed changes should be supported by research, just as any change proposal is.
23 Some issues/options to consider: Indexing – how are you going to index these in your catalog? Options include:Creating a separate genre/form indexIncluding them in the subject indexIndex only as keywordsSplit files when using LCSH as genre/form termsMay have ‘Short stories’ as 650 and also as 655Inconsistency in recordsSome catalogers are using LCGFT, some are notVariation in the records you find/export from OCLCBibliographic file maintenanceVery time-consuming!Authority vendor can help, but still lots to do manuallyOCLC Terminologies ServiceCan be integrated with Connexion or used as a standalone toolProvides faster, easier access to multiple thesauriCreates consistent metadata with searching, copy and paste functionalityWhat will be useful and beneficial to YOUR users?