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Presentation on theme: " 1. Introducing Text-Dependent Questions 80-90% of the CCSS standards for reading and literacy require textual analysis."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Introducing Text-Dependent Questions 80-90% of the CCSS standards for reading and literacy require textual analysis

3 Objectives Participants will understand the rationale for the CCSS shift towards more text dependent questions Participants will identify and analyze text dependent questions by type and by level of complexity Participants will review instructional materials to evaluate the quantity and quality of questioning within the selection/lesson 3

4 Shifts…

5 Shift # 2: Text-Dependent Questions 1. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction 2. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational 3. Regular practice with complex text and its academic language 5

6 Read like a detective! Use clues / evidence from text Make non-trivial inferences based on that evidence Use information from multiple sources within or between text to make arguments

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8 Standards Progression CCR Anchor Standard R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. Read text (closely) Determine (explicitly) what the text says Make logical inferences from the text Cite (specific) evidence from the text Support conclusions drawn from the text 8

9 Progression Procedure 1.Read all the standards from K-8 2.Highlight/underline the verbs 3.Note the skills that are emphasized from one grade level to the next 4.Discuss your observations with your table group. Where do you see significant shifts in the complexity of the standards? 9

10 Time – In and Out of the Text More instructional time spent outside the text means less time inside the text Departing from the text in classroom discussion privileges only those who already have experience with the topic It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the text—especially for students reluctant to engage with reading The CCSS are College and Career Readiness Standards 10

11 A Kindergarten Example of Keeping Inside the Text Imagine if your precious nose were sandwiched in between your toes, that clearly would not be a treat, for you'd be forced to smell your feet. 11

12 Teacher: (reads the second stanza) Where is the nose now? What’s the author telling us? Amir: I wouldn’t like my nose to be between my toes. My dad’s feet really stink! Jessica: My big brother has stinky feet. Carlos: Yeah, yeah…mine too…peeeyewww! (more students raise hands to share stories about family members’ with smelly feet). Teacher: Let’s look at the picture and reread this stanza: What is the author telling us about the nose being between the toes? Maria: I get it. It says that it ‘would not be a treat,’ so it’s not fun to have to smell feet all of the time.” Khalid: Oh, like the picture right here (pointing to the illustration). That would be only what you smell. Not like putting your nose there, but your nose is there all the time.” 12

13 A Definition As the name suggests, a text dependent question specifically asks a question that can only be answered by referring explicitly back to the text being read. It does not rely on any particular background information extraneous to the text nor depend on students having other experiences or knowledge; instead it privileges the text itself and what students can extract from what is before them. 13

14 Text-Dependent Questions... Can only be answered with evidence from the text Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as larger ideas, themes, or events Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency Can be prompts for writing and discussion questions 14

15 Text-Dependent Questions are NOT…  Low-level literal or simple recall questions  Used to test isolated comprehension strategies  Just questions… 15

16 Non-Examples and Examples 16 In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? Not Text-DependentText-Dependent

17 Three Types of Text-Dependent Questions When you're reviewing a set of questions, consider the following three categories: Questions that assess themes and central ideas Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary Questions that assess syntax and structure Level of Thinking (from Bloom’s) Literal/Inferential/Analytical/Synthesis/Evaluation 17

18 Interrogating Text-Dependent Questions 18  Do the questions target the core understandings and key ideas of the text?  Do the questions target the focus standards?  Do the questions target vocabulary and text structure?  Do the questions tackle tough sections head-on?  Is the sequence of text-dependent questions coherent, leading students to a deeper understanding and analysis of the text?

19 Reviewing Text Questions 1.Select an informational lesson from your textbook HM, Pearson, History/SS or Science 2.Read and analyze the publishers’ questions for pre-reading, during reading and post reading 3.Identify text-dependent questions and non-text dependent questions 4.Categorize the text dependent questions by type and by level of thinking Question Type Questions that assess themes and central ideas Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary Questions that assess syntax and structure Level of Thinking (from Bloom’s) Literal/Inferential/Analytical/Synthesis/Evaluation 19

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21 Synthesize & Evaluate 1)What percentage of the questions in the selection or lesson are text dependent? (80-90%) 2)Evaluate the quality of the questions with regard to type and level of thinking. 3) Are there holes? Where are those holes? *Consider how the quality of a question would be changed if it included a directive to support an answer with specific evidence from the text. Look back at CCSS Reading Standard 1 to find your grade level specific language (quote/cite etc.) 21


23 Text Dependent Questions GREEN FLAGS: SEE KNOW the CCSS for ELA / Literacy are being implemented when… RED FLAGS: NOT SEE  Rich and rigorous conversations are based on text.  Students closely analyze text with evidence to back up their claims and conclusions.  The majority of text-based questions focuses conversations and writing and require students to utilize information from text in their answers.  Questions are of high value they are worth thinking about and answering.  Questions move beyond what is directly stated and ask students to make nontrivial inferences from evidence in the text.  Background knowledge is used to illuminate the text and not replace it.  Students explore how specific words, details, structure and organization of text impact the meaning of the text as a whole.  The bulk of questions regarding the text can be answered without reading the text, either because it is not directly related to the text or because students can answer by referencing teacher comments.  Questions are primarily experience and background.  Students do not have to make connections within the text in order to answer questions. 23

24 A Conversation about Text-Dependent Questions This 11 minute video features a discussion between New York State Commissioner of Education John B. King Jr., David Coleman (contributing author to the Common Core) and Kate Gerson (a Sr. Fellow with the Regents Research Fund) that addresses the shift to Text-Based Answers.

25 Questions to Consider After Viewing Video Independently answer the following questions and then discuss with a colleague:  What does it mean to ask text-based questions?  How will this impact our instruction?  What challenges will we face as we make this shift?  What are the implications for teacher planning and for teacher planning time in schools?  What questions will take the students deeper into this text and cause them to pay careful attention to it?

26 In Conclusion We hope that this presentation has been helpful in providing you with an introduction to the topic of text dependent questions. Today has been an initial introduction. The topic will require extended professional development as we move forward. MORE TO COME………. 26

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