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Text-Dependent Questions

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1 Text-Dependent Questions
Welcome to Text-Dependent Questions Athena MS March 12, 2013

2 Agenda Where do the shifts come in? What are text-dependent questions?
How do I write questions that are text-dependent? Activity In this video, we will review the shifts required by the Common Core State Standards and how they apply to TDQs. We will then dive deeply into what it means to recognize and create quality text dependent questions for use in the classroom. Finally we will take a look at the relationship between creating quality TDQs and assessment.

3 Grades 6-12 Reading Standards
Before we begin, let’s take a look at this Wordle. This was created using the 6-12 ELA reading standards. From this composite, it is clear which words appear most often in the standards. Words like text, analyze, determine, including, specific. The expectations, then, for students really do center around looking at text deeply and critically. Text-dependent questions, then, are the tool teachers should use to get students to this level of thinking. (DSCYFEducation, 2013)

4 The 6 Shifts Reorganized
Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Regular practice with complex text and its academic language We know that there are six shifts that underlie the changes teachers are to make when implementing the Common Core. Those six shifts were combined into three, more succinct shifts. The first is building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction. This refers to engaging all students in all grades in all content areas in more informational text. The second is reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational. This refers to prompting students to use evidence when either discussing or writing about a text or texts. Finally, the third is regular practice with complex text and its academic language. This refers to stretching students and exposing them to more grade-level complex text and the academic language found within on a more regular basis.

5 Shift # 2: Text Dependent Questions
Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational In taking a closer look at that second shift, it is clear that quality text-dependent questions are key. If we want students grounded in the text, we have to create questions that foster this type of attention to the text. Text dependent questions may point students toward parts of the text that are most important to pay attention to. Teachers can also use questions to highlight and scaffold key knowledge and information, which helps students collect the most relevant pieces of evidence as they go.

6 “Read like a detective, write like an investigative reporter.”
David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core, has been quoted as saying it’s like having students read like a detective and write like an investigative reporter. If we keep this in mind as we plan instruction and interactions with text, we can then safely say we are grounding our instruction in the text and requiring students to use evidence when responding.

7 Time – In and Out of the Text
More instructional time spent outside the text means less time inside the text. Departing from the text in classroom discussion privileges only those who already have experience with the topic. It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the text—especially for students reluctant to engage with reading. The CCSS are College and Career Readiness Standards. Let’s think about time spent both in and out of text. We know that more time spent outside the text means less time in the text. Therefore, during instruction we need to shift our questioning and discussion to ensure more time is spent in the text. We also know that when we allow discussion to depart from the text, only students with that background will benefit. For example, if you were discussing a text about the use of iPads in classrooms, only students who have used an iPad or may have one at home will really engage in that discussion. Students with little or no background knowledge of iPads will get little to nothing from the discussion. When we think about using more complex text, which could raise the likelihood that students will not have much background knowledge, we have to pay closer attention to anchoring discussion in the text so all students have equal access. Also, when using complex text, it is much easier for students to depart from the text and talk about their own experiences or connections. Requiring students to read through a complex text and stay grounded in it really teaches perseverance. This perseverance is what is needed to be successful in college and career. (DSCYFEducation, 2013)

8 Text-Dependent Questions are not…
Low-level, literal, or recall questions Focused on comprehension strategies Just questions… Before we talk about what they are, let’s first define what text dependent questions are not. First, they are not low-level, referring either to Bloom’s Taxonomy or Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. Good TDQ’s can be very complex and inferential. Second, text-dependent questions are meant to point towards the most salient aspects of the text. They are not meant to test the skill or strategy of the week. Finally, TDQ’s are not just questions; they can be powerful, and they are worth asking. Along with high quality complex text, they will drive the CCSS in the classroom Now that we know what TDQ’s are not, let’s take a closer look at what they are.

9 Text-Dependent Questions...
Can only be answered with evidence from the text. Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as larger ideas, themes, or events. Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency. Can also include prompts for writing and discussion questions. TDQ’s should not require background knowledge. Stores of background knowledge can be added to by collecting the evidence from the text to further build knowledge, or can be tapped into to make meaning of the text. But ultimately TDQ’s should require the use of text evidence to answer appropriately. While TDQ’s can be literal, they must also involve higher levels of thinking. Questions that involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation actually point towards the most difficult parts of text; literal question do not. TDQ’s will drive the CCSS in the classroom if questions are asked about words, sentences, paragraphs, big ideas, themes, relationships, etc. TDQ’s are also an opportunity to address the academic (tier two) vocabulary and syntax that are features of complex text, which are the features that make text difficult for students. Ultimately this means that good questions actually make students stronger and more capable readers.

10 Three Types of Text-Dependent Questions
When you're writing or reviewing a set of questions, consider the following three categories: Questions that assess themes and central ideas Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary Questions that assess syntax and structure When thinking about writing TDQ’s, there are three categories a question may fall within. First, TDQ’s may assess a student’s ability to identify themes or central ideas. Or, TDQ’s may assess a student’s knowledge of vocabulary. Finally, TDQ’s might assess a student’s understanding of syntax and structure of a text.

11 Middle School Example What can we tell about Hercules?
What aspects of Hercules’ character is the author developing in this paragraph? What words or phrases support these traits?

12 High School Example Abraham Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address”
Lincoln says that the nation is dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal.” Why is equality an important value to promote? Lincoln begins his speech with a reference to the birth of our nation. What founding principles does Lincoln outline in this paragraph? (This leads into a later discussion of what’s at stake in this civil war) Given the demands of the Common Core, teachers must insist that classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page and that students develop habits for making arguments based on evidence both in conversation, as well as in writing. Also, teachers need to provide ample opportunities for students to have rich and rigorous conversations and develop writing that are dependent on a common text. In doing so, we can ensure we are preparing students for the demands of college and careers.

13 Creating Text-Dependent Questions
Identify the core understandings and key ideas of the text. Start small to build confidence. Target vocabulary and text structure. Tackle tough sections head-on. Create coherent sequences of text-dependent questions. Identify the standards that are being addressed. Create the culminating assessment. When thinking about writing TDQ’s, it is important to remember that there is no one formula – not every text will require the same process. Here are a few guidelines or tips you may consider when crafting TDQs for a particular text. You may create questions that directly address difficult sections of the text in order to help with breaking down complexity. They also may help students to extract and create meaning where they otherwise wouldn't. You may want to consider writing questions that build confidence or scaffold to a greater understanding or culminating assessment. The number of TDQs should vary from text to text depending on your purpose for reading. Finally, you should be sure to use the language of the standards in your TDQs as much as possible.

14 For more information…
Monroe 2-Orleans BOCES live binder: For more information specific to text dependent questions, EngageNY has a wide variety of resources. There is a video regarding this shift, along with other curricular materials that can show more examples of quality TDQs. Achievethecore also has sample units where you can find examples of quality TDQs. Finally, Monroe 2 BOCES has created a live binder of all things related to the Common Core. There are several resources related to text dependent questions, and this is added to on a regular basis, so be sure to check back periodically.

15 **Reference slides 9, 10, and 13 **
Activity **Reference slides 9, 10, and 13 **

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