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08/01/2014 Year 12 What you should know already. 08/01/2014 Elements and symbols that you should know: Part 1 – The obvious ones: 1)Hydrogen 2)Helium.

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Presentation on theme: "08/01/2014 Year 12 What you should know already. 08/01/2014 Elements and symbols that you should know: Part 1 – The obvious ones: 1)Hydrogen 2)Helium."— Presentation transcript:

1 08/01/2014 Year 12 What you should know already

2 08/01/2014 Elements and symbols that you should know: Part 1 – The obvious ones: 1)Hydrogen 2)Helium 3)Lithium 4)Beryllium 5)Boron 6)Carbon 7)Nitrogen 8)Oxygen 9)Fluorine 10)Neon 11)Magnesium 12)Aluminium 13)Silicon 14)Phosphorus H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Mg Al Si P

3 08/01/2014 Some more obvious ones: 15)Sulphur 16)Chlorine 17)Argon 18) Calcium 19) Zinc The less obvious ones: 1)Sodium 2)Potassium 3)Iron 4)Copper 5)Silver 6) Tin 7) Gold 8) Mercury 9) Lead S Cl Ar Ca Zn Na K Fe Cu Ag Sn Au Hg Pb

4 08/01/2014 What is an ion? An anion is an atom that has gained electron(s) to form a (-) ion e.g Cl - (Chloride) S 2- (Sulfide) or a cation is an atom that has lost electron(s) to form a (+) ion e.g Na + (Sodium) Fe 2+ (iron (ll) ion) (aka Ferric ion) Fe 3+ (iron(lll) ion ) (Ferrous)

5 08/01/2014 The formula for Ions that you should know: Write the ion or name beside the following 1)Hydrogen ion 2)Carbonate 3)Lithium ion 4)Magnesium ion 5)Oxide 6)Sulphate 7)Sodium ion 8)Iron (ll) ion 8)OH - 9)S 2- 10) Cl - 11)NO )Al 3+ 13) Pb 2+ 14) Ca 2+ 15)Fe 3+ H + CO 3 2- Li + Mg SO 4 2- Na + Fe 2+ Hydroxide ion Sulphide ion Chloride ion Nitrate ion Aluminium ion Lead ion Calcium ion Iron (lll)

6 08/01/2014 Atoms and elements A substance made of one type of atom is called an element e.g. a piece of Aluminium (symbol Al) consists of only aluminium atoms bonded together and is called an element.

7 08/01/2014Molecules Some elements are unstable as single atoms and only exist as 2 atoms bonded together to form a molecule. These are usually gases e.g H 2, N 2, Cl 2, O 2

8 08/01/2014 Compounds and Molecules Some compounds are molecules that contain 2 or more different atoms covalently bonded together. Some common molecular compounds are: CO 2 (carbon dioxide) H 2 O (water) CH 4 (methane) C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose)

9 08/01/2014 Naming compounds Rule – If two identical elements combine then the name doesnt change Name the following elements 1)H 2 2)N 2 3)O 2 4)F 2 5)Cl 2 6)Br 2 These elements always go around in pairs (diatomic molecules). For example, hydrogen looks like this: hydrogen nitrogen oxygen chlorine flourine bromine

10 08/01/2014 Some simple compounds… Methane, CH 4 Water, H 2 O Carbon dioxide, CO 2 Ethyne, C 2 H 2 Sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 Key Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Sulphur

11 08/01/2014 Simple formulae to learn H 2 O CO 2 NH 3 H 2 O 2 N 2 SO 2 Water Carbon dioxide Ammonia Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur dioxide NaCl CaCl 2 MgO HCl H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 NaOH Ca(OH) 2 CaCO 3 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 Sodium chloride Calcium chloride Magnesium oxide Hydrochloric acid Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Sodium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Calcium carbonate Aluminium oxide Iron oxide

12 Formulae What do the numbers mean in: –H 2 SO 4 –Mg(OH) 2 –3 NH 3 How many atoms of each type are there in: –H 3 PO 4 –Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3

13 08/01/2014 Balancing Reactions Mg + O 2 Zn + HCl Fe + Cl 2 NaOH + HCl CH 4 + O 2 Ca + H 2 O NaOH + H 2 SO 4 CH 3 OH + O 2 MgO ZnCl 2 + H 2 FeCl 3 NaCl + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 Na 2 SO 4 + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 O

14 08/01/2014 How could you produce CO 2 in the lab? Add calcium carbonate to some acid eg HCl or H 2 SO 4 How would you test for the CO 2 gas? By bubbling it through limewater ( a solution of Ca(OH) 2 ) and observing the solution go milky.

15 08/01/2014 How could you produce H 2 in the lab? Add Mg to some acid eg HCl or H 2 SO 4 How would you test for the gas? By igniting the gas using the pop test.

16 08/01/2014 How could you produce O 2 in the lab? manganese dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in a test tube produces oxygen gas How would you test for the O 2 gas? By placing a glowing splint into the tube and seeing if it would relight


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