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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Shelley Blasdel Begley Implementing the Split Cylinder Resonator Method for Measuring Complex Permittivity of Low Loss Materials

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Outline Definition of Permittivity Overview of the Split Cylinder Method A Walk Through the Process

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Definition of Permittivity Permittivity describes the interaction of a material in the presence of an electric field.

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Definition of Permittivity storage Measure of how much energy from an external electric field is stored in the material. Permittivity describes the interaction of a material in the presence of an electric field.

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Definition of Permittivity storage Measure of how much energy from an external electric field is stored in the material. Permittivity describes the interaction of a material in the presence of an electric field. aka Dielectric Constant Dk

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Definition of Permittivity storage loss Measure of how much energy from an external electric field is stored in the material. Measure of how much energy from the electric field is lost. Permittivity describes the interaction of a material in the presence of an electric field. aka Dielectric Constant Dk

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Definition of Permittivity storage loss Measure of how much energy from an external electric field is stored in the material. Measure of how much energy from the electric field is lost. Permittivity describes the interaction of a material in the presence of an electric field. aka Dielectric Constant Dk

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Loss Tangent

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Loss Tangent Dissipation Factor Quality Factor

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Loss Tangent Dissipation Factor Quality Factor AkaTan Delta Df

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Sensitive Resonant method for measuring complex permittivity Useful for thin film and low loss sheet materials. Originally proposed by Gordon Kent, improved by NIST Boulder, CO. Adopted as IPC Standard TM Overview of the Split Cylinder Method

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Split Cylinder Resonator System 85072A 10GHz Split Cylinder Resonator and sample PNA, PNA-L, PNA- XNetwork Analyzer LAN Optional Computer Agilent 85071E-300 Software runs on optional PC or Network Analyzer

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Side View

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Side View

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Side View

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Side View

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Electric Field Orientation for TEmnp Modes Where m = 0 and p is odd.

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Electric Field Orientation for TEmnp Modes Where m = 0 and p is odd. p = 3

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Overview of the Split Cylinder Method Field orientation can be significant if sample is anisotropic

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Measure Empty and Sample filled Resonator Real part of permittivity is a function of Frequency shift Loss tangent is a function of decrease in Q factor Also needed: Sample thickness Overview of the Split Cylinder Method QoQo fofo f QsQs fsfs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow QoQo fofo f QsQs fsfs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow QoQo fofo f

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Measure Empty Split Cylinder Resonator Agilent Software

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 S21 of TE011 Mode Resonator should be loosely coupled Adjust peak between 55-65dB Measure Empty Split Cylinder Resonator Agilent SoftwareAgilent Software guide

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Frequency and Quality Factor determination

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Frequency and Quality Factor determination Scalar Techniques 3dB Bandwidth Weighted Least Squares (WLS) Resonant Curve Area (RCA) S21 ΔfΔf 3dB f0f0

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Frequency and Quality Factor determination Vector Technique Circle Fit S21 fofo

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Frequency and Quality Factor determination Method Comparison 3dB Bandwidth Weighted Least Squares (WLS) Resonant Curve Area (RCA) Circle Fit

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Sample is assumed to be a uniform known thickness Best results: 0.1 to 3mm thick, ideally ~1mm Thickness uncertainty <0.02mm Minimize imperfections due to: Flatness Straightness Parallelism Measure Sample Thickness

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Sample thickness measurement Conforming samples such as thin films and PCBs Samples will be straightened out by cylinders. Recommend Agilent built in micrometer or mean of multiple thickness measurements. Rigid samples such as Ceramics Samples will not be straightened out by cylinders. Recommend mean of multiple thickness measurements.

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow f QsQs fsfs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Measure Sample Filled Resonator QoQo fofo f QsQs fsfs =

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Estimate Sample Filled Frequency Three ways to come up with initial guess: Theoretical or Design Value Independent Measurement Measure TE111 mode NIST Software – CalcFoInput.dat Number of TE0n Modes in Model Radius of Split-Cylinder Resonator (m) Length of Upper or Lower Split-Cylinder Resonator Section (m) Substrate Thickness (m) Initial Guess for Relative Permittivity of Substrate

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Calculate Sample Filled Frequency TE111 mode is the dominant mode when TE111 h = the total length of the closed cavity, or in this case where the cylinders are equal length, 2x the length of one cylinder. a = the radius of the cylinders. χmn = the mth root of Bessel function of nth order

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Calculate Sample Filled Frequency TE111 mode Agilent Software

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Measure Sample Filled Frequency and Q Agilent Software

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow QoQo fofo f QsQs fsfs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Calculate Permittivity Agilent Software

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Process Flow QoQo fofo f QsQs fsfs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Higher Order Modes TE011

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Double Peak in Search Span

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Double Peak in Search Span Agilent Software

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Interfering Modes

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Interfering Modes

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Split Cylinder Resonator Results

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Split Cylinder Resonator Results

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Conclusions Split Cylinder Resonator is a sensitive method for measuring complex permittivity of low loss materials It can be confusing if you dont know what you are doing. Agilent offers a turn key solution to make it fast and easy.

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Thank You for listening More information at

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 References [1] M.D. Janezic, Nondestructive Relative Permittivity and Loss Tangent Measurements using a Split-Cylinder Resonator,Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, [2] IPC-TM-650 Test Methods Manual Relative Permittivity and Loss Tangent Using a Split-Cylinder Resonator Number January, [3] R.N. Clarke (Ed.), A Guide to the Characterization of Dielectric Materials at RF and Microwave Frequencies, Published by The Institute of Measurement & Control (UK) & NPL, 2003 [4] P.G. Bartley, S.B. Begley Quality Factor Determination of Resonant Structures IMTC 2006 – Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Sorrento, Italy April 2006 [5] M.T. Ali, M.K.M. Salleh, Md.M.Md. Zan Air-Filled Circular Cross Sectional Cavity for Microwave Non-Destructive Testing Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology Volume 18 December 2006, pg , ISSN [6] M.D. Janezic, J.Krupka Split-Post and Split-Cylinder Resonator Techniques: A Comparison of Complex Permittivity Measurement of Dielectric Substrates. CICMT 2008 pgs

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 Appendix

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Implementing Split Cylinder Resonator for Dielectric Measurement of Low Loss Materials September 24, 2008 NIST Software Inputs CalcFoInput.dat Number of TE0n Modes in Model Radius of Split-Cylinder Resonator (m) Length of Upper or Lower Split-Cylinder Resonator Section (m) Substrate Thickness (m) Initial Guess for Relative Permittivity of Substrate SplitCInput.dat Number of TE0n Modes in Model Radius of Split-Cylinder Resonator (m) Length of Upper or Lower Split-Cylinder Resonator Section (m) Substrate Thickness (m) Conductivity of Split-Cylinder Resonator (S/m) Resonant Frequency of TE0np Mode (Hz) Quality Factor of TE01np Mode Initial Guess for Relative Permittivity of Substrate

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