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Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies Electromagnetic Properties of Materials: Characterization at Microwave Frequencies and Beyond

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Agenda Definitions Measurement Techniques Coaxial Probe Transmission Line Free-Space Resonant Cavity Summary 2

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Definitions Permittivity is a physical quantity that describes how an electric field affects and is affected by a dielectric medium and is determined by the ability of a material to polarize in response to an applied electric field, and thereby to cancel, partially, the field inside the material. Permittivity relates therefore to a material's ability to transmit (or "permit") an electric field…The permittivity of a material is usually given relative to that of vacuum, as a relative permittivity, (also called dielectric constant in some cases)….- Wikipedia

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Permittivity and Permeability Definitions interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field. Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

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Permittivity and Permeability Definitions interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field. Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

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Permittivity and Permeability Definitions interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field. interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field. Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) Permeability

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Permittivity and Permeability Definitions interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field. interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field. Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) Permeability

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Electromagnetic Field Interaction Electric Magnetic Permittivity Permeability Fields STORAGE MUT STORAGE

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Electromagnetic Field Interaction Electric Magnetic Permittivity Permeability Fields STORAGE LOSS MUT STORAGE LOSS

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Loss Tangent Dissipation Factor Quality Factor

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Relaxation Constant = Time required for 1/e of an aligned system to return to equilibrium or random state, in seconds. 1 1 10 100 10 100 Water at 20 o C f, GHz most energy is lost at 1/

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Techniques Transmission LIne Resonant Cavity Free Space Coaxial Probe

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Which Technique is Best? It Depends…

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Frequency of interest Expected value of e r and m r Required measurement accuracy Which Technique is Best? It Depends… on

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Frequency of interest Expected value of e r and m r Required measurement accuracy Material properties (i.e., homogeneous, isotropic) Form of material (i.e., liquid, powder, solid, sheet) Sample size restrictions Which Technique is Best? It Depends… on

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Frequency of interest Expected value of e r and m r Required measurement accuracy Material properties (i.e., homogeneous, isotropic) Form of material (i.e., liquid, powder, solid, sheet) Sample size restrictions Destructive or non-destructive Contacting or non-contacting Temperature Which Technique is Best? It Depends… on

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Transmission line Resonant Cavity Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low Free Space 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Transmission line Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low Free Space 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Transmission line Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low Free Space 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss Frequency Loss Transmission line Resonant Cavity Coaxial Probe Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency High Medium Low Free Space 50 MHz20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

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Coaxial Probe System Network Analyzer (or E4991A Impedance Analyzer) 85070E Dielectric Probe GP-IB, LAN or USB 85070E Software (included in kit) Calibration is required Computer (Optional for PNA or ENA-C)

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Material assumptions: effectively infinite thickness non-magnetic isotropic homogeneous no air gaps or bubbles Material assumptions: effectively infinite thickness non-magnetic isotropic homogeneous no air gaps or bubbles Coaxial Probe 1 Reflection (S ) r

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Three Probe Designs High Temperature Probe 0.200 – 20GHz (low end 0.01GHz with impedance analyzer) Withstands -40 to 200 degrees C Survives corrosive chemicals Flanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids.

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Three Probe Designs Slim Form Probe 0.500 – 50GHz Low cost consumable design Fits in tight spaces, smaller sample sizes For liquids and soft semi-solids only

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Three Probe Designs Performance Probe Combines rugged high temperature performance with high frequency performance, all in one slim design. 0.500 – 50GHz Withstands -40 to 200 degrees C Hermetically sealed on both ends, OK for autoclave Food grade stainless steel

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Coaxial Probe Example Data

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Martini Meter! Infometrix, Inc.

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Transmission Line System Network Analyzer Sample holder connected between coax cables 85071E Materials Measurement Software Calibration is required Computer (Optional for PNA or ENA-C) GP-IB, LAN or USB

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Transmission Line Sample Holders Waveguide Coaxial

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Transmission Line l Reflection (S ) 11 Transmission (S ) 21 Material assumptions: sample fills fixture cross section no air gaps at fixture walls flat faces, perpendicular to long axis Known thickness > 20/360 λ Material assumptions: sample fills fixture cross section no air gaps at fixture walls flat faces, perpendicular to long axis Known thickness > 20/360 λ r and r

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Transmission models in the 85071E Software AlgorithmMeasured S-parametersOutput Nicolson-RossS11, S21, S12, S22 ε r and μ r NIST PrecisionS11, S21, S12, S22 εrεr Fast Transmission S21, S12 εrεr Poly Fit 1S11, S21, S12, S22 ε r and μ r Poly Fit 2S12, S21 εrεr Stack TwoS21, S12 (2 samples) ε r and μ r

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Reflection models in the 85071E Software AlgorithmMeasured S-parametersOutput Short BackedS11 εrεr Arbitrary BackedS11 εrεr Single Double ThicknessS11 (2 samples) ε r and μ r

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Transmission Example Data

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85071E Materials Measurement Software Transmission Free-Space System Network Analyzer Sample holder fixtured between two antennae Calibration is required Computer (Optional for PNA or ENA-C) GP-IB, LAN or USB

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Non-Contacting method for High or Low Temperature Tests. Free Space with Furnace

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Transmission Free-Space Material assumptions: Flat parallel faced samples Sample in non-reactive region Beam spot is contained in sample Known thickness > 20/360 λ Material assumptions: Flat parallel faced samples Sample in non-reactive region Beam spot is contained in sample Known thickness > 20/360 λ l Reflection (S11 ) Transmission (S21 ) r and r

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Free Space Example Data

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Resonant Cavity System Resonant Cavity with sample connected between ports. Network Analyzer GP-IB or LAN Computer (Optional for PNA or ENA-C) Resonant Cavity Software No calibration required

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Resonant Cavity Fixtures Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650- 2.5.5.5.13 Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

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Resonant Cavity Technique f f c Q c empty cavity fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity Qc = Q of Empty Cavity Qs = Q of Filled Cavity Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity Vc = Volume of Sample ASTM 2520 S21

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Resonant Cavity Technique Q f s f f c s Q c empty cavity sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity Qc = Q of Empty Cavity Qs = Q of Filled Cavity Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity Vc = Volume of Sample ASTM 2520 S21

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Resonant Cavity Technique Q f s f f c s Q c empty cavity sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity Qc = Q of Empty Cavity Qs = Q of Filled Cavity Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity Vc = Volume of Sample ASTM 2520 S21

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Resonant Cavity Technique Q f s f f c s Q c empty cavity sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity Qc = Q of Empty Cavity Qs = Q of Filled Cavity Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity Vc = Volume of Sample ASTM 2520 S21

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Resonant Cavity Example Data

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Resonant vs. Broadband Transmission Methods ResonantBroadband Low Loss materials Yes e r resolution 10 -4 No e r resolution 10 -2 Thin Films and Sheets Yes 10GHz sample thickness <1mm No 10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm Calibration RequiredNoYes Measurement Frequency Coverage Single FrequencyBroadband or Banded

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Materials Ordering Convenience Specials Model NumberDescription 85071E E19 E03 E04 E15 E07 Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED 1.1GHz 2.5GHz 5GHz 15GHz 22GHz 85071E E02 E01 E22 E18 E24 Quasi-optical products from Thomas Keating Ltd. 60-90GHz – Quasi-optical Table 75-110GHz – Quasi-optical Table 90-140GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables 220-326GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables 325-500GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables

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Materials Ordering Convenience Specials Model NumberDescription 85071E E19 E03 E04 E15 E07 Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED 1.1GHz 2.5GHz 5GHz 15GHz 22GHz 85071E E02 E01 E22 E18 E24 Quasi-optical products from Thomas Keating Ltd. 60-90GHz – Quasi-optical Table 75-110GHz – Quasi-optical Table 90-140GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables 220-326GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables 325-500GHz – Additional set of horns for above tables

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For More Information Visit our website at: www.agilent.com/find/materials For Product Overviews, Application Notes, Manuals, Quick Quotes, international contact information…

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References R N Clarke (Ed.), A Guide to the Characterisation of Dielectric Materials at RF and Microwave Frequencies, Published by The Institute of Measurement & Control (UK) & NPL, 2003 J. Baker-Jarvis, M.D. Janezic, R.F. Riddle, R.T. Johnk, P. Kabos, C. Holloway, R.G. Geyer, C.A. Grosvenor, Measuring the Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials: Solids, Liquids, Metals, Building Materials, and Negative-Index Materials, NIST Technical Note 15362005 Test methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and temperatures to 1650°, ASTM Standard D2520, American Society for Testing and Materials Janezic M. and Baker-Jarvis J., Full-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurements, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol. 47, no. 10, Oct 1999, pg. 2014-2020 J. Krupka, A.P. Gregory, O.C. Rochard, R.N. Clarke, B. Riddle, J. Baker-Jarvis, Uncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniques, Journal of the European Ceramic Society No. 10, 2001, pg. 2673-2676 Basics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materials. Agilent application note. 5989-2589EN AM. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., IM-19(4), pp. 377-382, 1970. Improved Technique for Determining Complex Permittivity with the Transmission/Reflection Method, James Baker-Jarvis et al, IEEE transactions on microwave Theory and Techniques vol 38, No. 8 August 1990 P. G. Bartley, and S. B. Begley, A New Technique for the Determination of the Complex Permittivity and Permeability of Materials Proc. IEEE Instrument Meas. Technol. Conf., pp. 54-57, 2010.

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