3 Using Indicator Paper for Measuring pH If the indicator paper turns reddish pink, this indicates an acid (1-6). If the indicator paper turns bluish green or darker, this indicates a base/alkaline (8 – 14). This strip indicates a pH of 6.5.
4 Water pHThe pH level in your drinking water reflects how acidic it is. The pH stands for “potential hydrogen” which refers to the amount of hydrogen that is mixed with the water. The level of pH is measured on a scale from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. Measurements below 7 are considered acidic (high concentration of hydrogen) and levels above 7 are considered basic /alkaline (low concentration of hydrogen). Water with a low pH can be acidic, soft and corrosive. Acidic water causes metals such as copper, lead, iron, zinc and manganese to leach from pipes and fixtures. Stained laundry, blue-green stains in sinks and drains and metallic or sour tasting water are indications of low pH.An elevation of toxic metals in water can also indicate low pH levels.
5 Using Probes to Measure pH NEVER touch the bulb of the probe.After inserting the probe into the sample, wait for the reading to remain constant.Dip the bulb into the distilled water before inserting it into another sample.ALWAYS clean the bulb by inserting it into the distilled water without touching it!
6 Acceptable pH Range for Water – 6. 5 to 8 Acceptable pH Range for Water – 6.5 to 8.5 Pure water has a pH of 7 (neutral).
7 pH of Common Substances 1.If a company that manufactures car batteries dumped hundreds of them into a localstream, what affect may this have on the water?2. Would this be a point or nonpoint source of pollution?
10 Bioindicators of Water Quality pollution, tolerance
11 Water quality is a term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water. The health of a water system is determined by these variables. Both natural and man-made forces are constantly changing these variables.Physical variables include: temperature, turbidity, and water movement (faster moving water tends to have more dissolved oxygen).Chemical variables:include dissolved oxygen and other gasses, pH, nitrates, and salinity.Biological variables:include organisms living in the water (bioindicators).
14 1. What is the purpose of the screen in the first filtration. 2 1. What is the purpose of the screen in the first filtration? 2. What happens during “coagulation”? 3. What is ‘sludge”? 4. What is the purpose of “aeration’? 5. What is added as a “disinfectant”? What is it’s purpose? 6. What is “potable” water?Potable water is water that is safefor human consumption.
15 Wastewater Treatment Process: Enhanced Process The goal of wastewater treatment is to make the water clean enough to return to the environment.
18 Drinking Water Treatment Process *The goal of drinking water treatment is to make the water safe for human consumption “potable”. *Water quality standards are established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). *Refer to the “2011 Water Quality Report”.*
19 Testing for Microorganisms in Drinking Water Bacterial Indicator Organisms include:Total Coliform BacteriaFecal Coliform BacteriaEscherichia coliEnterococcusHeterotrophic Bacteria
20 Private Source of Drinking Water - Well Private water wells require homeowners to take more control of their water quality. Well owners have a responsibility to themselves, their family, and their neighbors to protect their ground water from contamination and ensure that their water system is providing good quality drinking water. As a minimum, test your water for coliform bacteria and nitrates.
21 Public Source Drinking Water – Provided by City The public drinking water systems regulated by EPA, and delegated states and tribes, provide drinking water to 90 percent of Americans. These public drinking water systems, which may be publicly- or privately-owned, serve at least 15 service connections or 25 persons. Private, individual household wells, are not regulated by EPA.
22 Private Source Wastewater Treatment: Septic Tanks A septic tank must be at least 100 away from the drinking water well. Why do you think this is important?
23 Septic Tank System (private source wastewater treatment) Why is it important that the drainfield/leechfield consist ofpermeable materials?2. What materials may permeable layers consist of?
24 What is the role of bacteria in wastewater treatment?
25 Septic tanks must be maintained so that they do not contaminateground water and surface water.
26 Public Source Wastewater Treatment The goal of wastewater treatment is to make the water clean enough to return to the environment.
30 Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution NPS pollution comes from many widespread sources and can be generated by most land use activities.Excess fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides from agricultural lands andresidential areasOil, grease and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy productionSediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and forestlands, and eroding streambanksSalt from irrigation practices and roadsAcid drainage from abandoned minesBacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet wastes- Atmospheric deposition (rain, snow, sleet, hail)
31 Cropland/Agriculture Suburban (city) development 1. What pollutants may enter waterways from each of the areas below? 2. How would the pollutants make it into the waterway? 3. What solutions may help prevent these pollutants from entering the water?City streetsRural (country) homesForestry; timber,Christmas treesCropland/AgricultureSuburban (city) developmentAnimal feedlots (hog farms, cattle, etc.)
32 City Streets - gasoline - motor oil - garbage - salt - feces - chemicals from construction- acid rain- organisms from dead animalsother liquids from automobilesWhat additional pollutants could be added to this list?
33 Rural (country) Homes - septic Tanks - leaves - garbage - sediment - motor oil cleaning chemicals- animal bodies fertilizer- grease pesticides- animal waste herbicides- detergents/laundry other toxic chemicals- paint dump sites- grass clippingsautomobile batteriesWhat additional pollutants could be added to this list?
34 ForestrySediment from the removal of trees, transportation of wood in and out of forestDebris from tree removalWhat additional pollutants could be added tothis list?
35 Suburban DevelopmentSediment as areas are disturbed from development processChemicalsDebris from building materialsPollution from construction vehiclesWhat additional pollutants could be added to thislist?
36 Croplands/Agriculture HerbicidesPesticides/InsecticidesSediment from land use (plowing, tilling, etc.)Fertilizer, nitrates, phosphates, nutrients etc.What additional pollutants could be added tothis list?
37 Animal Feedlots Manure (cattle, hogs, etc.) adds nutrients to water Manure may have parasites and bacteria.What additional pollutants could be added tothis list?
38 Nonpoint Source Pollution Motor spill Pollutants Entering Storm DrainSediment from RunoffAgricultural Pollution
39 Cont. Nonpoint Pollution (NPS) NPS pollution, unlike pollution from industrial and sewage treatment plants (point sources), comes from many widespread sources and can be generated by most land use activities.NPS pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even our underground sources of drinking water.Common NPS pollutants include sediment, nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, oil and salt.Roadway pollutants enter storm drain
41 Point Source Pollution * Contaminants that enter awater body that can betraced back to a specificsource, location, andoffender.* Point source pollution is easier to manage compared to nonpoint source pollution.Examples of point source pollution include:dumping of industrial waste,sewage treatment facilities,- hazardous chemical deposition (e.g. nuclear waste).- Heat can also be a pollutant; power plants often use water to cool overheating components. Once used, this hot water is released into nearby lakes where it alters the lake’s temperature. This heat is a form of pollution because it can be harmful and kill aquatic life including sensitive fish species.- Another example of widespread pollution is the legal discharge of sewage and other chemicals.
43 Cont. Point Source Pollution Industrial dumping of chemicals Wastewater Treatment Plant
44 Thermal Pollution Nuclear Power Plant Coal Powered Steam Plant Nuclear power plants and coal powered steam plants use water to cool theequipment. This heated water is then returned to the environment. What problemsmay this present?Nuclear power plants also produce radioactive materials that must be disposed ofproperly. What problems may this present?Coal powered plants produce waste products (i.e. fly ash) and air pollution (acidrain). What problems may this present? What type of nonpoint source pollutionmay this type of power plant produce?