Presentation on theme: " The process of achieving a relatively stable internal environment CELLS MUST CONSTANTLY RESPOND TO NATURAL FORCES IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN."— Presentation transcript:
The process of achieving a relatively stable internal environment CELLS MUST CONSTANTLY RESPOND TO NATURAL FORCES IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS Therefore, materials like _Water, O 2, ions, nutrients, & hormones are needed to come into a cell and wastes need to be let out of a cell.
Two thin layers of phospholipids and proteins. ▪ The membrane is not rigid but fluid. ▪ This enables it to regulate flow of substances into and out of the cell.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY : the membrane regulates the exchange of materials into and out of a cell. Polarity, size, and electric charge or molecules determine whether they can pass through a membrane. SMALL HYDROPHOBIC molecules pass right through (CO 2, O 2, and N 2 ) SMALL, UNCHARGED or POLAR molecules pass through as well (H 2 o, glycerol, ethanol) LARGER, UNCHARGED or POLAR molecules have a harder time passing through (amino acids, glucose, nucleotides) IONS can’t pass through (H +, Na +, K +,Ca +2, and Cl - ), they need the help of TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Cells survive only if they can maintain homeostasis. Organelles work to maintain this state. Homeostasis is challenged because molecules move. In order for cells to maintain conditions, they need to be able to control the movement of “stuff” into and out of them.
It encourages the movement of good stuff in and out. It discourages the movement of bad stuff in and out.
How materials move into or out of the cell
The difference in concentration of a substance across an area. To move “down” or “along” a concentration gradient means to move from HIGH to LOW concentration. To move “up” or “against” a concentration gradient means to move from LOW to HIGH concentration.
Passive Transport- the movement of molecules along a concentration gradient (high low)…it does NOT require energy. Can you guess what Active transport means?
PASSIVE TRANSPORT involves diffusion without any input of energy. It moves substances down their concentration gradients. Three types: DIFFUSION-The natural movement of small molecules from high to low concentration OSMOSIS- The diffusion of water FACILITATED DIFFUSION requires the help of transport proteins in the membrane, but still move down their concentration gradient.
Diffusion- The passive movement of molecules from regions of [high] to [low]* * [ ] = scientific symbol for concentration
All molecules contain heat, causing them to be in constant random motion, colliding with one another. As they move, they will naturally move (diffuse) into available space if they can easily cross the membrane
When a difference in concentration exists across a cell membrane a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT exists. Concentration- Total % of molecules in a certain place By diffusing, the rate of movement of molecules from [high] to [low] exceeds the rate from [low] to [high] until the concentration gradient no longer exists. so, rate in = rate out! People Molecule Example: Field Trip!!!!!!!!!
The size of the concentration gradient The steeper the gradient, the faster the molecules move The surface area of the membrane A greater surface area relative to the enclosed volume results in a great rate of diffusion.
Requires the help of transport proteins in the membrane, but still move down their concentration gradient.
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Down/Along the concentration gradient.
Water moves towards the hypertonic place Tonic dissolved substances Hyper high Hypo low Hypertonic Solution high concentration of dissolved stuff, low in water- net water loss cell shrinks
low concentration in dissolved stuff and high in water, net water gain, cell swells
equal amount of dissolved material inside and outside of cell- no net loss
Cells don’t necessarily want to be isotonic, but unless they fight it, they’ll go that way. Example: A frog in a freshwater pond will tend to lose salts from his/her body to the environment by diffusion. Therefore, the frog has a mechanism to take back salts from the environment- against the [gradient]! This requires chemical energy which is supplied by ATP.
This leads us to the “other” type of transport: ACTIVE TRANSPORT WHEN MOLECULES NEED TO BE IMPORTED OR EXPORTED AGAINST THEIR [GRADIENT], CELLS EXPEND ATP TO MOVE MOLECULES FROM [LOW] to [HIGH] USING ENERGY!
SODIUM - POTASSIUM PUMP- One of the most widely occurring active transport proteins in eukaryotes. Used to transport sodium ions out of cells and potassium ions into cells. Example: nerve cells have 30 times more potassium in them than extracellular fluids. animation animation
Sodium ions bind to the protein on the inside of the cell membrane; ATP is hydrolyzed and the phosphate produced is linked to the protein The shape of the protein is changed in such a way that the sodium ion can be expelled out of the cell Potassium ions bind to the protein Phosphate group is removed causing the protein to snap back to its original shape Potassium ion moves into the cell
ENDOCYTOSIS- Large molecular with materials are enclosed within invaginations of the plasma membrane, subsequently pinching off to form cytoplasmic vesicles. Phagosytosis- cell ingests large particles such as bacteria or pieces of debris Entrap Engulf Digest Absorb Pinocytosis- cell ingests liquid and/or dissolved solutes and small suspended particles. Also known as “receptor-mediated endocytosis” animation