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Differentiated Instruction (Part 2) Hoover, Alabama October 24-25, 2006 Sandra Page ASCD Faculty Member and Educational Consultant 919/929-0681

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Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Instruction (Part 2) Hoover, Alabama October 24-25, 2006 Sandra Page ASCD Faculty Member and Educational Consultant 919/929-0681"— Presentation transcript:

1 Differentiated Instruction (Part 2) Hoover, Alabama October 24-25, 2006 Sandra Page ASCD Faculty Member and Educational Consultant 919/ Warren Court Chapel Hill, NC 27516

2 A Planet “Show & Tell” (Each student must pick one square from each horizontal row and use the two together) Use the computer to make a drawing that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Paint a picture that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Construct a model that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons. Create a book or puppet show that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works. Make labels for the sun, Earth, day, night, orbit to attach to or use with your creation. Be ready to explain orally. Write sentences* that identity and explain each part of your drawing or model and how each part works. Write a story that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night, and seasons. Write a poem that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night and seasons. Pick a Way to Explain Create One This differentiated review/synthesis task is based on Va. SOLS for science: 1.6 The student will investigate & understand the basic relationships between the Earth and sun, Including *the sun is the source of heat & light *night & day are caused by the rotation of the Earth. 1.7 The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change (light and temperature) to the activities & life processes of plants and animals. Based on Unit by Bette Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools.

3 Proportional Reasoning Think-Tac-Toe Create a word problem that requires proportional reasoning. Solve the problem and explain why it requires proportional reasoning. Find a word problem from the text that requires proportional reasoning. Solve the problem and explain why it was proportional. Think of a way that you use proportional reasoning in your life. Describe the situation, explain why it is proportional and how you use it. Create a story about a proportion in the world. You can write it, act it, video tape it, or another story form. How do you recognize a proportional situation? Find a way to think about and explain proportionality. Make a list of all the proportional situations in the world today. Create a pict-o-gram, poem or anagram of how to solve proportional problems Write a list of steps for solving any proportional problem. Write a list of questions to ask yourself, from encountering a problem that may be proportional through solving it. Nanci Smith, 2004

4 Student Traits Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. Tomlinson, 2003

5 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Table Tennis. Write as much as you can. DefinitionDetails Rules Table Tennis Personal Experience

6 Knowledge Rating Chart 1.I’ve never heard of this before 2.I’ve heard of this, but am not sure how it works 3.I know about this and how to use it _____ Direct object _____ Direct object pronoun _____ Indirect object _____ Indirect object pronoun _____ Object of a preposition _____ Adjective _____ Interrogative adjective

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8 Exit Cards: Algebra Name: Draw a graph & label the “x” and “y” axes Graph a line segment with the endpoints (3,5) (7,2) Graph a line segment with the endpoints (- 3,-5) (7,2) Provide two ways of writing the equation for a line

9 3-2-1 Card Name: 3 things I learned from the friction lab… 2 questions I still have about friction… 1 thing way I see friction working in the world around me….

10 Tiered Assignments In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought. Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zone of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.”

11 BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System RAS = “Toggle Switch” HIGHMIDDLELOW Hot (EEG)Mild (EEG)Cold (EEG – sleeplike) Limbic arousedCortical arousalSleep (depression) Flight / FightProblem SolvingRelaxation Out of ControlIn ControlOff Duty CarbohydratesProteinsCarbohydrates/Dairy BurnoutAchievementDepression Extreme ChallengeModerate ChallengeNo Challenge Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time: “Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard Gardner Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position

12 The What and the Why Tiering …. responds to differences in students’ readiness levels (skills and/or knowledge) gives students an opportunity to be successful at assigned tasks attempts to fit students’ learning into a zone of proximal development, providing a moderate level of challenge configures a skill to allow some students to move more quickly, with more sophisticated texts, using multiple step problem-solving, while other students use more basic level materials and/or fewer complicated steps to learn and practice a skill.

13 Elementary Physical Education  SKILL: Dribbling and basketball Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand Switch to the other hand and repeat. Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight line) 1 ZIGZAG – One hand Other hand Increased speed Change pattern to simulate going around opponents 2 In and out of pylons as fast as possible Change hand Increase speed Dribble with one hand – and a partner playing defense. Increase speed and use other hand Trade roles Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense Increase speed Trade roles 3 4 5

14 Counting/Math Center Task 1 Find a way to count and show how many people are in our class today. How did you get your answer? Task 2 Find a way to show how many people are in our class. How many absent today? How many are here today? How do you know? Task 3 Find a way to show how many boys are in our class today. How many boys are absent today? How many girls are here today? How many girls are absent today? Prove you are right. Grade K Counting (Skill) Grade K Key Concept: Patterns Generalization: Scientists Classify by Patterns Use carpenter’s aprons to collect “data” through a nature walk. At Science Center: Pre-made grid with categories on it Sample grid – students create own grid Students decide how to show categories and contents Task 1 Classify Leaves by size by color Task 2 Classify Leaves by shape create a category Task 3 Find 3 ways each leaf could be classified – other than color Tomlinson ‘97

15 Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Application, Insight, Transfer Solutions, Decisions, Approaches Planning, Designing, Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought The Equalizer 1.FoundationalTransformational 2.ConcreteAbstract 1.SimpleComplex 2.Single FacetMultiple Facets 3.Small LeapGreat Leap 4.More StructuredMore Open 5.Less IndependenceGreater Independence 6.SlowQuick

16 1.FoundationalTransformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications -close to text or experience -expert idea and skill to similar or familiar setting -use key idea or skill alone -fundamental skills and knowledge emphasized -fewer permutations of skills and ideas -removed from text or experience -export idea or skill to unexpected or unfamiliar setting -use key idea or skill with unrelated idea or skill -use but move beyond fundamental skills and knowledge -more permutations of skills and ideas Foundational to Transformational. When an idea is new to some students, or if it’s not in one of their stronger areas, they often need supporting information about the idea that is clear and plainly worded. Then they usually need time to practice applying the idea in a straightforward way. In these instances, the materials they use and the tasks they do should be foundational – that is, basic and presented in ways that help them build a solid foundation of understanding. At other times, when something is already clear to them or is in a strength area, they need to move along quickly. They need information that shows them intricacies about the idea. They need to stretch and bend the idea and see how it interacts with other ideas to create a new thought. Such conditions require materials and tasks that are more transformational. For example, one child may benefit from a more basic task of classifying animals by body covering, which another may need the more transformational task of predicting how changes in environment would likely affect the body covering of several animals. In a math class, one young learner may be ready for a basic application of the concept of fractions by cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given fraction. An appropriate challenge for another student may be the more transformational task of writing measures of music that represent certain fractions.

17 2. ConcreteAbstract Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials -hold in hand or hands on -tangible -literal -physical manipulation -event based -event to principle -demonstrated and explained -hold in mind or minds on -intangible -symbolic or metaphorical -mental manipulation -idea based -principle without event -not demonstrated or explained Concrete to Abstract. Students usually need to become familiar with the key information or material about an area of study before they can successfully look at its implications, meanings, or interrelationships. However, once they have grasped the information in a concrete way, it’s important that they move on to meanings and implications. Working with concrete information should open a door for meaningful abstraction later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot (more concrete) typically has to precede investigations of theme (more abstract). But ultimately, all students need to delve into the meanings of stories, not just the events. The issue here is readiness or timing.

18 3. SimpleComplex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals -use idea or skill being taught -work with no one, or few abstractions -emphasizes appropriateness -requires relatively less originality -more common vocabulary -more accessible readability -combine idea or skill being taught with those previous taught -work with multiple abstractions -emphasizes elegance -requires relatively more originality -more advanced vocabulary - more advanced readability Simple to Complex. Sometimes students need to see only the big picture of a topic or area of study, just its “skeleton,” without many details. Even adults often find it helpful to read a children’s book on black holes, for example, before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking. When the big picture is needed, your students need resources, research, issues, problems, skills, and goals that help them achieve a framework of understanding with clarity. On the other hand, when the “skeleton” is clear to them, they’ll find it more stimulating to add “muscle, bone, and nerves,” moving from simple to complex. Some students may need to work more simply with one abstraction at a time; others may be able to handle the complexity of multiple abstractions. For example, some students may be ready to work with the theme in a story (a single abstraction), while other students look at inter-relationships between themes and symbols (multiple abstractions, or complexity).

19 4.Single FacetMultiple Facets Disciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of Development -fewer parts -fewer steps -fewer stages -more parts -more steps -more stages Single Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes students are at peak performance when working on problems, projects, or dilemmas that involve only a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be all that some students can handle to make a connection between what they studied in science today and what they studied last week. Those with greater understanding and facility in an area of study are ready for and more challenged by following complicated directions. They are more challenged by solving problems that are multifaceted or require great flexibility of approach, or by being asked to make connections between subjects that scarcely seemed related before. 5.Small LeapGreat Leap Application, Insight, Transfer -few unknowns -relative comfort with most elements -less need to change familiar elements -requires less flexible thought -few gaps in required knowledge -more evolutionary -many unknowns -relative unfamiliarity with many elements -more need to change familiar elements -requires more flexible thought -significant gaps in required knowledge -more revolutionary Small Leap to Great Leap. Note that this continuum does not provide the option of “no leap.” Students should always have to run ideas through their minds and figure out how to use them. Activities that call only for absorption and regurgitation are generally of little long-term use. But for some students, learning about how to measure area and then applying that learning by estimating and verifying the area of the hamster house compared to the teacher’s desk may be enough of a leap of application and transfer – at least in the beginning. Other students may be able to more from estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed to a building project and proportional cost implications of increasing the building area. In both cases, students make mental leaps from reading information on a page to using that information. The latter task calls for relatively greater leaps of application, insight, and transfer..

20 6.More StructuredMore Open Solutions, Decisions, Approaches -more directions or more precise directions -more modeling -relatively less student choice -fewer directions -less modeling -relatively more student choice Structured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid out for them, where they don’t have too many decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or delineated routes. Being new to a computer or word processor often requires completing programmed and closed lessons that involve “right” answers to become knowledgeable -- and comfortable – with basic operation and keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of graphics to illustrate ideas in a formal presentation. Following a predetermined format for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab often makes more sense than improvisation. At other times, however, students are ready to explore the computer, craft their own essays designed to address a communication need, or create a chemistry lab that demonstrates principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most of us become confident enough to eventually “wing it.” But when modeling has served its purpose, it’s time to branch out and get creative. 7.Clearly Defined Fuzzy Problems In process, In Research, In Products -few unknowns -more algorithmic -narrower range of acceptable responses or approaches -only relevant data provided -problem specified -more unknowns -more heuristic -wider range of acceptable responses or approaches -extraneous data provided -problem unspecified or ambiguous

21 8.Less IndependenceMore Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring -more teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on: problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation -more teacher scaffolding -learning the skills of independence -less teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation -less teacher scaffolding -demonstrating the skills of independence Dependent to Independent. A goal for all learners is independent study, thought, and production. But just as some students gain height more quickly than others, some will be ready for greater independence earlier than others. Their needs in developing independence generally fall into one of these four stages: 1.Skill building, when students need to develop the ability to make simple choices, follow through with short- term tasks, and use directions appropriately. 2.Structured independence, when students make choices from teacher-generated options, follow prescribed time lines, and engage in self-evaluation according to preset criteria to complete longer-term and more complex tasks. 3.Shared independence, when students generate problems to be solved, design tasks, set time lines, and establish criteria for evaluation. The teacher helps “tighten” or focus the plans and monitors the production process. 4.Self-guided independence, when students plan, execute, and seek help or feedback only when needed. By guiding students across this continuum at individually appropriate speeds, you and your students are less likely to become frustrated by tasks that require greater independence.

22 Analyzing the Assignment What skill is being differentiated in this lesson? What works well for students by tiering this skill activity? What concerns do you have? How does tiering an assignment honor some of the major principles of differentiation? –Ongoing assessment allows adjustment of instruction –Groupings are flexible –Tasks are respectful –Assigned tasks provide appropriate, moderate challenges and with an opportunity for success –Teacher and students are clear about learning goals

23 Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy Determine density Conduct an experiment Write a lab report Work at a high level of thinking Share findings with the class

24 The Soda Group Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy.

25 The Brine & Egg Group Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing. They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

26 The Boat Group Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. They built and tested the boat and its projected load. They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.

27 Science Lesson ThinkDOTS – Matter Name three types of physical changes. Create a list with at least two examples of each that are different from the examples in the book. Which is higher, an element’s atomic number or its mass number? Why? How are physical and chemical properties different? Why? What does the periodic table tell us about calcium? How can this help us in our everyday lives? What is the correct symbol for the element helium? Research the history of this element and create a timeline showing what elements were discovered just before and after helium. Share two ways that scientists study atoms. Suggest any new ways you might think of.

28 Science Lesson ThinkDOTS - Matter Predict as many properties for potassium as you can. To make your predictions, look at the information in the box for this element and consider its location on the periodic table. Suppose you were given some sugar cubes, a grinder, some water, a pan, and a hot plate. What physical and chemical changes could you make in the sugar ? There are three jars in the front of the room. Each has a substance with a strong odor. One is a solid, one is a liquid, and one is a gas. Which odor would students in the back of the room smell first? Why? How do the atomic numbers in the periodic table change from the top to the bottom? From left to right across the table? Carbon is atomic number 6. How are two carbon atoms with mass numbers of 12 and 14 different? Why are these atoms called isotopes? P. Goolsby & K. Brimijoin, Amherst County Schools, 2000 Why do you think scientists used the term “cloud” to describe the position of electrons in an atom?

29 PHYSICS A High School Tiered Lesson After reading and discussing text and looking at models of flight, the students will refine thinking about the physics of flight. As a result of the Lab, students should: Know Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing edge, leading edge) Understand Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction) Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is moving. Be Able to Do Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key principles. Explain, illustrate and defend thinking regarding the objects they create and modify.

30 Students are assigned to work in pairs at a lab station based on a brief preassessment writing prompt asking for their basic knowledge and understandings of the physics of flight. Each lab station has three tasks, increasing in complexity of design and understandings. Required elements included a written explanation of their findings for initial designs and modified designs, and the use of key vocabulary and key principles. Paper Airplanes that fly for Maximum Distance Maximum Hang Time Tricks Kites Diamond Box Triangle-Layered Pinwheels Forward Motion Backward Motion Upward Motion In the lab students design, redesign, and explain

31 Level 1: 1.a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = 2, find b, c, and d. a + b = c a – c = d a + b = 5 2.Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card 1. 3.Explain in words what the equation 2x + 4 = 10 means. Solve the problem. 4.Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by 8x – 2 = 7x. 5.Diagram how to solve 2x = 8. 6.Explain what changing the “3” in 3x = 9 to a “2” does to the value of x. Why is this true?

32 Level 2: 1.a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = - 1, find b, c, and d. a + b = c b + b = d c – a = -a 2.Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card 1. 3.Explain how a variable is used to solve word problems. 4.Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by 2x + 4 = 4x – 10. Solve the problem. 5.Diagram how to solve 3x + 1 = Explain why x = 4 in 2x = 8, but x = 16 in ½ x = 8. Why does this make sense?

33 Level 3: 1.a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = 4, find b, c, and d. a + c = b b - a = c cd = -d d + d = a 2.Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card 1. 3.Explain the role of a variable in mathematics. Give examples. 4.Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by. Solve the problem. 5.Diagram how to solve 3x + 4 = x Given ax = 15, explain how x is changed if a is large or a is small in value.

34 Adding Fractions Green Group Use Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6. Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book. Red Group Use Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems. Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it. Blue Group Manipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length. Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions.

35 Nanci Smith Describe how you wouldExplain the difference solve or rollbetween adding and the die to determine yourmultiplying fractions, own fractions. Compare and contrast Create a word problem these two problems:that can be solved by + and (Or roll the fraction die to determine your fractions.) Describe how people useModel the problem fractions every day.___ + ___. Roll the fraction die to determine which fractions to add.

36 Nanci Smith

37 Describe how you wouldExplain why you need solve or rolla common denominator the die to determine yourwhen adding fractions, own fractions.But not when multiplying. Can common denominators Compare and contrast ever be used when dividing these two problems:fractions? Create an interesting and challenging word problem A carpet-layer has 2 yardsthat can be solved by of carpet. He needs 4 feet___ + ____ - ____. of carpet. What fraction ofRoll the fraction die to his carpet will he use? Howdetermine your fractions. do you know you are correct? Diagram and explain the solution to ___ + ___ + ___. Roll the fraction die to determine your fractions.

38 Graphs of Polynomials (tiered lesson) Introductory discussion by whole class: Can you predict how people will act or what they will do? What characteristics would you look for in doing so? Can you predict a family member better than a stranger? How well can you predict what your friends will think? What factors will affect people’s behaviors? What else can be predicted in the world by behavior? (stocks, economy, weather, etc.) How are world behaviors predicted? (data, graphs, etc.) How can we predict what an extension of a graph might do? (patterns) If you do not have a piece of the graph, could you predict what a graph might look like, or how it will behave? Based on what?

39 Whole group introduction to polynomial activities: You are all going to investigate characteristics of the graphs of polynomials. Your goal is to draw conclusions about their general behaviors based on specific attributes of the equation. (Discuss what an end behavior and zeros are if the student do not already know this term.) Each group will share their findings when finished in order for all to have a complete picture. The teacher creates groups of 3-4 students, based on pre- assessed readiness. There are four tasks, but some tasks may be done by multiple groups; in other words, there may be two or more groups doing the same task, depending on how many students are at the same readiness level.

40 Sea Green Group: Students are given four quadratic equations, two with positive lead coefficients and two with negative lead coefficients. They are to graph the parabolas in a graphing calculator, then copy the graphs onto graph paper with the equations. Repeat this process with four cubic polynomials, four quartic polynomials, and four quintic polynomials. Describe the change in the behavior of the graph of a polynomial based on the sign of the lead coefficient. What conclusions can you draw? Test your hypothesis with equations and graphs of your own. Defend mathematically why graphs respond the way that they do based on the sign of the lead coefficient.

41 Indigo Group Students are given several even degree polynomials. They are to graph on a graphing calculator and then sketch on graph paper with the equation. Repeat the process with several odd degree polynomials. What conclusions can you draw from your graphs about end behaviors related to the degree of the polynomial? What about the number of zeros of the function? Students are then given equations of polynomials. They are to predict what the graph will look like based on the degree. Students are given graphs of polynomials. They are to write an equation of a polynomial that would be appropriate. (These do not have to be exact.)

42 Violet Group: Students are asked to graph the following in a graphing calculator, then copy the graphs and equations onto graph paper. Y 1 = (x+1)(x-2)Y 2 = -(x-3) 2 Y 3 = 2x 2 +5x +6 Describe the behavior of the graph including its relationship to the x-axis and its end behaviors. Do you see any patterns? Repeat the process:Y 1 =(x+3)(x+2)(x-1) Y 2 = -(x-2)(x+1) 2 Y 3 = -x 3 +2x -5 Describe the behavior of the graph including its relationship to the x-axis and its end behaviors. Do you see any patterns? What conclusions can you draw? How can you predict the number of times a graph will touch or cross the x-axis? Based on your observations, describe how a graph behaves from its equation. Include end behaviors and x-intercepts.

43 Dark Red Group: Give students multiple polynomials to graph. Some should be in factored form. Both even and odd degrees and positive and negative lead coefficients should be included. Students are to graph and copy the graphs and equations onto graph paper. Draw conclusions about how the equation of a polynominal can predict the behavior of a graph. Include end behaviors and zeros. Test your conclusions by writing polynomial equations and predicting the corresponding graphs. Check your prediction with a graphing calculator.

44 New World Explorers KNOW Names of New World Explorers Key events of contribution UNDERSTAND Exploration involves –risk –costs and benefits –success and failure Group A Using a teacher- provided list of resources and list of product options, show how 2 key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide proof/evidence. Group B Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how New World Explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit’s principles.

45 Elections and Current Events (tiered lesson) The teacher assigns students to a group based on reading level readiness. Group 1: students work in pairs, using an elementary-level current events magazine to complete a list of background questions. They will also use Time and Newsweek to get information from a cartoon and graph. Group 2: students work in pairs, using Time and Newsweek to answer a second set of background questions (dealing with the same concepts, but at a more abstract and complex level). They will also use the elementary-level magazine to get information necessary for one question on their background sheet. Tomorrow, students will participate in cooperative tag-tem debates. In tag-tem debates, students prepare as a group for one side of a debate, and they may call on or “tag” others on the same side when they feel the need for assistance as they present. They will select pro or con, then the teacher will assign groups of six, some similar readiness, some mixed readiness, for the tag-team debates.

46 Tiered Lesson: Regions of the United States Students will KNOW: Characteristics of regions, Landforms Natural resources Historical economic resources Climate Students will be able to DO: Research, Analyze cause and effect Communicate findings in oral presentation, writing, and graphic diagrams Students will UNDERSTAND that: Changes are taking place within regions of the US. Issues and changes faced by one region are affected by the geography and history of that region Based on preassessment of reading and writing skills, and readiness levels for research and complex thinking, the teachers assigns students to tiered tasks. Students may work alone or in groups of two or three. Students will present their findings at a class conference on change in the United States. Research materials will be available for varied reading levels.

47 Single Region Investigation: You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are changing. Research one region and find an important change that is taking place in that region. Create a product that illustrates this change and that answers the guiding questions. You will present your product to the class at the conference. Your product may be a timeline, a photo essay, a dramatic play, or a simulation. You may choose one of these ideas or develop your own idea: Northeast – traffic, pollution, decline in industries Southeast – natural disasters, illegal immigration, industries moving to Asia Middle West – changing water supply, farming/agriculture, West – traffic, water supply, population growth Southwest – population/immigration, energy sources, environmental impact Key Questions What caused the change in this region? What have been the effects of the change? How is this change a result of the history or geography of this region? How are people in this region adapting to this change and what responses or solutions have been created because of the change?

48 Product Guidelines: Single region investigation continued… 1.Read the selection from the textbook and complete the information in the chart given below: 2.Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of change and should contain the answers to the key questions. 3.You will need to show careful research from several sources, including video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic. Although there will be materials provided in the classroom, you will need to gather information from other resources. 4.Your product should be clean and neat, and the writing should be clear to a reader unfamiliar with this topic. Captions should be informative. Writing should reflect your best effort and contain good grammar and no abbreviations or contractions. 5.You will need to keep a planning log which will be turned in as part of your grade. Complete entries on each part of the plan. If you are working with a partner, both individuals must turn in a planning log Plan Part I (checkpoint day 2) Choose a region. Explore changes within that region. Choose a change within that region for your project. Plan Part II (checkpoint days 5, 7) Research change/region. Plan Part III (checkpoint days 10, 12) Use research notes to create product Plan Part IV (final day 15) Class conference and self-reflection RegionLandformsClimateNatural ResourcesOther chosen area

49 Total Regions Investigation (advanced level): You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are changing. Research one change and find how it is taking place in multiple US regions. Create a product that illustrates this change and that answers the guiding questions. You will present your product to the class at the conference. Possible areas of change to explore include: TransportationPopulation make-up (age, ethnic groups) AgriculturePopulation growth or decreases PollutionNatural disasters Jobs and industriesImmigration/ illegal immigration Energy sourcesRoad and railroad and/or public transportation Key Questions What caused the change? Why is it happening in different regions? What have been the effects of the change and how do they differ between regions? How are people in different regions adapting to this change? Examine the responses or solutions. What geographic or historical factors are affecting whether changes are viewed positively or negatively?

50 Product Guidelines: Total Regions Investigation (advanced level): 1.Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of change, and should contain answers to the key questions. 2.You will need to show careful research from several sources, including video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic. At least two sources must be from governmental departments or data- gathering reports, such as population census, Army Corps of Engineers reports, Dept. of Transportation reports, and other such sources. I have a list of websites for you to use, if you wish. 3.Your product should illustrate a change over time. Using your research, create a magazine article, a news program/video, a dramatic play, a simulation, or other product of your choice. It should be clearly written, engaging and informative, neat, contain good grammar and reflect your best work. 4.Your product should include a graphic illustration of change over time. This may be in the form of a table, graph, map, concept web, diagram, or timeline. 5.You will need to keep a daily planning log. On some days, I will ask you to respond to prompts and to reflect on what you have done so far, where you go next, and your thoughts about particular topics. Your job is to complete your entries thoughtfully and to turn the planning log in with your project. If you are working with a partner, both individuals must turn in a planning log.

51 Prejudice Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to those who practice them. Scapegoating Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this group and the treatment they received because of them. Articles Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify the minds of those responsible? Photography Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it. Genetics Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge. Stereotypes Your groups was persecuted. Identify a groups who has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why. Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?. Scapegoating What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your groups scapegoated? Articles Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why? Photography Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related? Genetics Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why. Stereotypes Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped? Photography Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?. Genetics Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why? Scapegoating Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group. Stereotypes Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had? Articles Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say? “Generic” Think DOTS for High School Literature – Concept: Prejudice

52 Learning Log Prompts (tiered lesson) Skills:identify sensory words; apply and analyze; write a response. Understand: Sensory words can be a tool and an art form. Students begin reading The Winter Room by Gary Paulsen. After reading the first few pages, the teacher assigns students one of these three learning log prompts, based on readiness in writing and analysis: List words that relate to smells, to sounds, and to hearing. Write a sentence or two about anything in your experience the sensory words remind you of. How does a reader draw from personal experiences to relate to smells, sounds, and visual descriptions? Select a setting and a moment in time. Write a descriptive paragraph or two, modeling after Paulsen’s writing. Add a statement or two about why sensory words make a passage seem to come alive.

53 Secondary Literature Tiered Lesson All students will Know: (key ideas, vocabulary, facts) Elements of literature Author’s voice Concept of responsibility All students will understand: (generalizations) We are responsible for ourselves and our choices We “write” our own lives. Our actions have a ripple effect. Responsibility may require sacrifice and may result in fulfillment. Our work bears our hallmark. All students will be able to do: (skills) Argue and support Edit and revise skills Use figurative language effectively Analyze literary pieces

54 Secondary Literature continued The teacher uses several differentiated strategies in teaching these lessons, including offering a range of articles, books, or chapters to read. All students will read The Little Prince, but some students will be helped by using a recorded version or by shared reading. All students will analyze pieces of literature to explore the premise that we are responsible for those we tame, and will frame an argument to support their position.

55 Group 1 Read pages from The Little Prince Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the fox’s feelings about responsibility toward those we tame and why he believes what he does. Read story, “Bloodstain” Complete analysis matrix on the beliefs of the main character. Select a newspaper article from folder. Write 2 paragraphs that compare beliefs of the people in the article with the two characters What advice would you give children about responsibility toward people we tame? Brainstorm on paper and then either: Write a letter to a kid, giving your advice Write guidelines for adults who affect children’s lives Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a responsible adult Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in to teacher.

56 Group 2 Read pages from The Little Prince. Using article and story list provided by the teacher, find at least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on responsibility for those we tame. Find at least 2 contrasting pieces. Develop notes on two views of responsibility with reasons and examples from your reading selections. Be sure you are thoughtful about each view. Then either: Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches for our school. Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed. Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple effect of such decisions in history, science, or our community. Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in to teacher.

57 Character Map Character Name____________ How the character looks ____________ How the character thinks or acts ____________ Most important thing to know about the character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

58 Character Map Character Name____________ What the character says or does ____________ What the character really MEANS to say or do ____________ What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ________________

59 Character Map Character Name____________ Clues the author gives us about the character ____________ Why the author gives THESE clues ____________ The author’s bottom line about this character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ __________

60 Learning Log Prompts (tiered lesson) Skills:identify sensory words; apply and analyze; write a response. Understand: Sensory words can be a tool and an art form. Students begin reading The Winter Room by Gary Paulsen. After reading the first few pages, the teacher assigns students one of these three learning log prompts, based on readiness in writing and analysis: List words that relate to smells, to sounds, and to hearing. Write a sentence or two about anything in your experience the sensory words remind you of. How does a reader draw from personal experiences to relate to smells, sounds, and visual descriptions? Select a setting and a moment in time. Write a descriptive paragraph or two, modeling after Paulsen’s writing. Add a statement or two about why sensory words make a passage seem to come alive.

61 Theme Describe the theme of your poem in a paragraph. Check for topic sentence, supporting details and conclusion Figurative Language Using a graphic organizer, list all the similes and metaphors in your poem. If you need help finding metaphors, consult With your group members Line Describe the way the lines are arranged Rhyme Figure out the rhyme scheme of the poem. Be prepared to teach it to the class. Setting Illustrate the setting of your poem. Use color (markers, pencils) and give your picture a title that is connected to the poem but not the title of the poem Speaker Describe the speaker of this poem. Be prepared to share orally. Poetry Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA

62 Theme Compare the theme of your poem to the theme of a story or novel you have read. Use a Venn diagram to show your comparison. Figurative Language Tell how the similes and metaphors in your poem enhance the imagery. Be prepared to share orally. Rhyme What does the rhyme scheme have to do with the meaning of the poem? Why do you think the poet chose this pattern? Line Describe the impact the line arrangement has on the poem. Argue convincingly In a short paragraph. Setting Illustrate the setting of your poem. Use color (markers, pencils) and give your picture a title that is connected to the poem but not the title of the poem Speaker How does the speaker feel? Find at least 2 feelings and be prepared to explain orally. Poetry Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA

63 Theme Write a short poem to express the theme of the poem you have chosen. Choose your own style. Figurative Language Write 2 more similes and metaphors that could be added to the poem. Rhyme Provide other examples Of rhyme or rhythm Besides end rhyme used in your poem. How does this add To the sound of the Poem? Be prepared To share orally Line How would the poet arrange the next lines of this poem if he/she were extending the meaning and theme? Setting If your poet were an artist, how would he/she express this poem as a picture? Use markers, pencils, etc. to illustrate your answer. Speaker Create another line for this poem that the speaker may have written. Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA Poetry

64 Music Lesson Standard: Analyze and compare the use of music element representing various genres and cultures emphasizing meter and rhythm. Know: Elements of music, especially meter and rhythm Understand: The elements of music are used across various music genres and cultures. Music expresses the culture. Do: Analyze music for elements Show how the elements are used in various genres and cultures.

65 The elements of music are presented in a mini lecture. Students take notes using the split entry journal with either two or three columns. Analyzing music for elements in small groups: M – given a simple piece of recorded music, fill in a detailed outline identifying specific elements. U – With a slightly more sophisticated piece of musicv, identify and describe any elements heard. S – With a more complex piece of music, identrify and describe the elements. I – Given sheet music and an accompanying recording, analyze the elements. C – From sheet music only, analyze and identify the elements. Hypothesize what was the intent of the composer. Music Lesson

66 Show how the elements represent various genres and cultures. You may work alone, with a partner, or in a group of three. You may present your music and finding in any format of your choice.  Choose two cultures and samples of their traditional music. Compare the elements of the two pieces. How do the pieces reflect the culture from which they come?  Choose three pieces from different genres of music. Compare the elements of the pieces. How do the pieces reflect mood and emotion?  Determine what style of music best represents you – your environment, history and mood. Explain how the elements of the music represent who you are as a person.  Find music from the culture of one of your ancestors. Does the music dtill reflect who you are? Why or why not? How do the elements support your decision? Music Lesson

67 Tiered Lesson -- ART Skill: Contour Drawing 1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your draw. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing. 2.Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand. That means you can look at your hand and the paper but Cannot draw any time you look at the paper. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing a half-blind contour drawing. 3.Students with excellent eye-hand coordination Do a blind contour drawing of your hand. Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your sketchbook.

68 World Language 1st year lesson Alien invasion Target Group Student A selects one of the aliens. Student B asks questions in an attempt to figure out which Alien student A selected. Student A answers the questions in complete sentences. All questions must be “yes” “no” questions having to do with the aliens’ features. Students then switch roles. Advanced Group Student B also asks questions about why the alien is formed as it is. Student A makes up responses. In the end, the students write a descriptive statement about the structure and function of the alien. Students then switch roles. Learning goals : Practice use of vocabulary for numbers and vocabulary of body parts, using interrogative sentences. Provide each student with a sheet of “aliens” with varied numbers of arms, legs, eyes, noses, mouths, and ears.

69 Alien invasion continued … Struggling Group If there are students who cannot succeed with the target activity, the teacher can provide ONE of the following: 1.A list of possible questions in the language 2.A list of helpful vocabulary 3.A brief period of teacher coaching to help students develop a model for the task. Following this initial activity, students design, describe and name their own alien. These are displayed in the classroom and the whole class engages in a questioning activity to determine who created each alien. (Ex: Does Will’s alien have long legs?) Based on a differentiated Spanish I activity developed by Ellin Gallagher, Park City, Utah, from Enhancing Foreign Language Instruction in Your Classroom by Barbara Snyder.

70 German: Past Tense Verbs (tiered lesson) For part of today, students will work in one of three groups to practice using verbs. Group One: Complete an oral round-robin exercise by reading German sentences and questions from a flipchart, and select which of two verb forms beneath a sentence should be placed in the sentence. Group Two: Take turns reading sentences with present-tense verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense verbs, and then converting them into past-tense questions. Group Three: Work in pairs to ad lib a conversation in which they ask questions and give answers about what happened at home and school yesterday and today. Tomorrow, students will work in mixed readiness triads (one person from each group) to prepare for a “skill drill”.

71 Examples of Tiered Tasks Novel Think-Tac-Toe Double Entry Journal Writing prompts that differ in the sophistication required for response Skill groupings that are based on readiness Quality rubrics that differentiate expectations of excellence Learning contracts that assign more or less difficulty of practice for students’ learning Differentiated literature circle or other group role requirements Strategies like RAFTs or cubing/Think Dots that are modified from basic to complex Others? What have you used or seen presented?

72 DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Basic) IN THIS COLUMN,NOTE: Key phrases Important words Main ideas Puzzling passages Summaries Powerful passages Key parts Etc. IN THIS COLUMN, EXPLAIN: How to use ideas Why an idea is important Questions Meaning of key words, passages Predictions Reactions Comments on style Etc.

73 DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Advanced) NOTE Key passages Key vocabulary Organizing concepts Key principles Key patterns ANOTHER VOICE Teacher Author Expert in field Character Satirist Political cartoonist Etc.EXPLAIN  Why ideas are important  Author’s development of elements  How parts and whole relate  Assumptions of author  Key questions

74 Product Cards and Quality Rubrics Standards of excellence progress along a continuum to allow for personal growth and improvement Students assigned a standard for performance that provides appropriate challenge Some elements of performance are same/similar for everyone

75 Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation I PartsAttributes IntroductionPurpose introduced, impetus for project explained BeginningTopic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of SpeechMajor points supported with details/examples Body LanguageSustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, confident volume Use of ArtifactsTo support major points, limited SummaryMajor points reviewed, conclusion presented ContentResponds to learning goals, “big ideas” presented Tomlinson modification of Curry and Samara: Curriculum Guide for the Education of Gifted High School Students 1991

76 Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation II PartsAttributes IntroductionPurpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project explained, project outline reviewed BeginningTopic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of SpeechMajor points supported with details/statistics/examples, intermittent summarizations, audience involved with content Body LanguageSustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader level volume, poised and comfortable appearance Use of ArtifactsTo support major points, selections are appropriate/illustrative SummaryMajor points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of concepts/beliefs/positions ContentResponds to learning goals, “big ideas” presented

77 Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation III PartsAttributes IntroductionPurpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project explained, project outline reviewed, expected outcomes discussed BeginningTopic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of SpeechMajor points supported with details/statistics/examples, intermittent summarizations, transition statements link major points, audience involved with content, artful use of language, insightful connections/conclusions Body LanguageSustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader level volume, poised and comfortable appearance Use of ArtifactsTo support major points, intermittent use, selections are appropriate/illustrative SummaryMajor points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of concepts/beliefs/positions, creativity and power of thought in final points/appeal ContentResponds to learning goals, “big ideas” presented, draws connections to personal lives or to other disciplines

78 Tiering a Lesson What range of learning needs are you likely to address? What should students know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the lesson? Know: Understand: Be Able to Do: What’s your “starting point lesson?” How will you hook the students? What’s your first cloned version? What’s your second cloned version of this activity? What’s your third cloned version of this activity?

79 Note-taking while watching the video Clarity of learning goals?Flexible grouping? Assess and adjust?Respectful tasks? Moderate challenge? Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile? Concerns or questions?

80 Continuum of Differentiation A Progression of Differentiation Increased comfort with modifying multiple elements of curriculum > Increased flexibility and fluidity of learning environment > From differentiation as a strategy, toward differentiation as a way of thinking about teaching--> Take it or leave it teaching Reflection of student need Reactive Differentiation Teacher Planned Open-endedness Proactive Teacher-planned Differentiation plus openness Shared teaching and learning One size fits allRestlessnessPatching potholes as we travel Student as self- coach Diagnosing and Prescribing Teacher as coach All students in the class cover the same content at the same time using the same materials and resources. All students complete the same activities at the same time. All students take the same tests or complete the same assessments with the same expectations Teacher becomes aware that students have differing needs regarding content, activities, products, and assessments. Teacher wonders if there is a better way to meet students’ needs. When some students do not master the concepts and skills on a test, teacher reteaches or gives students additional practice before retesting. When some students finish their assignments in half the allotted time and already show mastery of the concept and skills, teacher assigns additional work or independent study. Teacher gives students choices regarding materials, resources, activities, products, working alone or in pairs or small groups. Discussion questions and tests contain open- ended questions. Student choice is based on their own assessment of their interests, learning styles, and/or readiness. Teacher feels that students will “self- differentiate” when given choices. Student choices plus planning for differences and for appropriate challenges. Designing curriculum using Dr. Tomlinson’s “equalizer.” Frequent use of some of the following: regular pretesting, compacting, tiered assignments, interest centers, learning centers, learning contracts, varying questions, independent projects, differentiated rubrics. Planned use of flexible grouping based on pre- assessment of readiness, learning style, or interest. Previous column plus: Management techniques to encourage student decision making. Authentic problems and audiences are offered. Individual goal setting and conferencing exists. Evaluation is based on individual growth. Students are involved in establishing criteria for evaluation.

81 Book and Online Resources Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD, Good for teachers who already incorporate differentiation into instruction. Includes templates for the next steps. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD, This is the basic book, and is widely available in all school libraries. This fits an overview study best. The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD, This is the next step for teachers who already know much about differentiation. Differentiation in Practice, Carol Tomlinson and Caroline Eidson or Cindy Strickland, ASCD. Three resource books of actual lessons for grades K-6, or 5-9, or 9-12 in a variety of subject areas. This represents good models, but works best with teachers who are well grounded in their understanding of both curriculum and differentiation. Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms, Carol Ann Tomlinson and Susan Allan, ASCD, A guide for instructional leaders. A source for books, but also an opportunity to see sample chapters, take online courses, etc.www.ascd.org Access some learner preference assessments at Look for the file entitled “Profile Assessments for Cards.”www.e2c2.com/fileupload.asp A source for standards-based, tiered lessons with rubrics with student examples.www.exemplars.com K-12 differentiated units, lessons and instructional strategies.


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