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Introduction day Morning Unit Two what is an argument Intro What is an argument Girl V dad How to deconstruct an argument Look through paper two & question.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction day Morning Unit Two what is an argument Intro What is an argument Girl V dad How to deconstruct an argument Look through paper two & question."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction day Morning Unit Two what is an argument Intro What is an argument Girl V dad How to deconstruct an argument Look through paper two & question Afternoon Unit One Credibility criteria Application Head boy Fran lee Dogs fighting Look through paper one Unit F501: Introduction to Critical Thinking The language of reasoning Credibility Unit F502: Assessing and Developing Argument Analysis of argument Evaluating arguments Developing ones own reasoned arguments

2 Unit F502: Assessing and Developing Argument Analysis of argument Evaluating arguments Developing ones own reasoned arguments

3 If you were an ANIMAL what ANIMAL would you be? Why?

4 Morning Session Introduction Unit 2 What is an Argument? Daughter & Father Deconstruct an Argument -key terms and examples Look at exam paper

5 Critical Thinking Critical Thinking students develop the skills that allow them to Analyse Evaluate Present Arguments

6 Critical Thinking Analyse – To identify the structure of an argument What is the Conclusion ? What are the Reasons to support this ?

7 What is an Argument? Objectives To understand what is meant by the term argument To start to be able to identify the components of an argument

8 Think back to the last argument you had With a partner share What was it about Who was it with What were you aiming to achieve An argument is – An attempt to persuade someone of something What is an Argument? A Starter

9 How can we spot an Argument? Look at the examples below, which are arguments ( attempts to persuade) I like cheese My mum makes the best cakes, she was taught by my Gran Man U suck I want that shirt because it is cheap I hate TV soaps because they are boring Where is the cathedral? Using these examples can we define what makes something an argument? Must have statement and reason /evidence

10 An Argument you may have had! Look at the argument between the father and daughter Is this discussion an argument or simply a row? What is the father trying to persuade his daughter, can you find three reasons he gives in support of this? What is the daughter trying to persuade her father, can you find three reasons he gives in support of this? Who do you think has the stronger argument? V

11 What advice would you give the daughter in order to strengthen her argument (attempt to persuade) What is an Argument? A Plenary

12 Call out the letters of the Alphabet and complete the Actions A Touch Nose with Left Hand HO Draw the letter O in the Air V Clap Hands Together BIPW C Touch Left Ear with Left Hand J Draw the Letter J in the air Q Touch both Ears X Make an X Sign with both Hands D Left Thumbs down K Right hand in the Air R Touch both Ears with Opposite Hands Y Touch both Ears E Right Thumbs Up L Both Hands in the Air S Left Hand in the Air Z Thumbs Up Sigh with both Hands FMT GNU

13 How to deconstruct an Argument? Objectives To be able to identify a conclusion in an argument To be able to identify the reasons given in support At its simplest an argument consists of a reason and a conclusion Key Terms Argument – The presentation of one or more reasons to support a conclusion Conclusion – A claim that is supported by one or more reasons Reason – A claim which supports a conclusion Argument Indicator – A word or phase that provides a link between a reason and a conclusion

14 True or false The person with the best reasons/evidence will always win the argument In pairs discuss whether you believe this statement to be true or false and be ready to feedback your beliefs. How to deconstruct an Argument? A Starter

15 Conclusions/Reasons Smoking isnt illegal. Millions of people get huge pleasure from it. Therefore smokers should not be made to feel that they are committing a crime whenever they light up. Reasons – Smoking isnt illegal\Millions of people get pleasure from it Conclusion – Therefore Smokers should not be made to feel they are committing a crime…..

16 Conclusion Indicators Conclusions can often be identified by conclusion indicators These are words or phases which indicate a conclusion is being given Conclusion Indicators ThereforeIt follows (that) ThusShows (that) SoProves (that) HenceIndicates (that) ConsequentlyDemonstrates (that) In conclusionFor these reasons we see (that) We conclude (that)Must, need to As a resultOught to should

17 Conclusions/Reasons There has been an increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke. Teenage girls tend to buy those brands that are most frequently advertised. It must be advertising that has caused this increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke. Reasons – There has been an increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke/Teenage girls buy those brands that are most frequently advertised. Conclusion – Therefore it must be advertising that has caused the increase in teenage girls who smoke…..

18 Conclusions/Reasons Some of the Antarctic ice-caps are melting. This must be an indication of global warming. If the ice-caps continue to melt, sea levels will rise resulting in catastrophic flooding of many of our coastal areas. We should take action now to reduce the causes of global warming Reasons – Ice caps are melting – this is an indication of global warming – if ice caps melt=floods=catastrophe Conclusion – Therefore we should take action to reduce the causes of global warming

19 D

20 B

21 A

22 How to deconstruct an Argument? A Plenary Write your own short argument, with a conclusion and two reasons in support for your partner to deconstruct. In pairs work through the examples highlight the conclusion and then the reasons

23 In your groups look through Paper Two and formulate one question you would like to ask

24 Unit F501: Introduction to Critical Thinking The language of reasoning Credibility

25 Which is more important? Being Right or Being Polite

26 Afternoon Session Unit One What is Credibility Criteria Examples- Head boy Fran lee Dogs Look at Exam Paper

27 Credibility of Evidence Objectives To understand the different Credibility criteria available To apply these criteria to evidence to assess its credibility What criteria do we use to evaluate credibility?

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29 CRAVEN CRAVEN - the acrostic for the criteria that can be applied when assessing evidence. Some evidence may be measured using just one criterion from the CRAVEN criteria. Some may be examined using more than one depending on the source of the evidence.

30 CRAVEN C Circumstantial or context R Reputation A Ability to see or perceive V Vested Interest E Expertise N Neutrality

31 Critical Thinking Credibility of Evidence 1 Criteria to use (Criterion singular) Reputation- Does the source have a reputation for reliability, e.g. the difference between The Sun and the BBC Ability to observe- Could the source see what it claims has happened Vested Interest- Does the source have a reason to be biased e.g. someone accused of war crimes who denies any responsibility Neutrality- Opposite of Vested Interest, does the source have a neutral outlook on the claim Expertise/Training- Does the source have relevant training or expertise that would support their claim, e.g. a Doctor giving a medical opinion

32 Critical Thinking Credibility of Evidence 2 Criteria to use (Criterion singular) Nature of the claim- Is the claim itself credible, or very unlikely, e.g. when someone claims to have witnessed a miracle Credible reasons for the claim- Can the source support their claim with credible reasons, or is it not supported Corroboration- Is there corroboration of the claim from independent sources, e.g. it is backed up elsewhere You need to be able to use the Criteria in deciding which sources and authorities are credible/reliable and on what grounds

33 Using Credibility Criteria When assessing the credibility of a source you should use whatever criteria you think is relevant, and often will use at least two. EG – An Eye Witness Report Emphasis on the high credibility of direct observation But also Vested Interest – Did the eyewitness have anything to gain by including or excluding evidence Bias – Did the eyewitness observe a friend and try to present them in the best light? Expertise – Did the eyewitness have any relevant expertise which may increase the credibility of the evidence Reputation – Has the eyewitness got a reputation for honesty or dishonesty Corroboration – Is the evidence given by the eyewitness supported by other sources of evidence Selectivity – Did the eyewitness see only part of the event? Context – Did the context allow for a clear view of the event? Here we can see combining different criteria improves our assessment of credibility of evidence

34 Key Terms Argument – A reason or reasons that support a conclusion Evidence – Information used to support an argument Source – Where evidence comes from e.g. eye witness Credibility – Believability, a cr4edable source is a believable source Credibility Criteria – criteria used to assess the credibility of sources and evidence Neutrality – Impartial, not taking sides Vested Interest – Having something to gain from a particular outcome Bias – Favouring a particular view Expertise – Specialist knowledge Reputation – What is generally thought about a persons character or Standing Observation – Direct observation of an event by an eyewitness Eye witness account – A report by someone who has personally observed an event Corroboration – Confirming, giving support to, Corroborative evidence is evidence that supports each other, point in the same direction. Selectivity – The choice of evidence to support an argument Context – The setting or situation in which evidence is produced Truth – Something that is accurate or correct

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37 What could each one of these represent? 1) 2) 3)

38 Credibility of Evidence Objectives To revisit the credibility criteria available To continue to apply the criteria to worked examples To come to a conclusion to if the Head Boy is guilty! Was the Head Boy guilty?

39 Head Boy Accused of Theft Read the passage Head Boy Accused of Theft and answer the questions that follow.

40 Questions: 1.Using the criterion of reputation, discuss whether it seems likely that David stole the chocolates from the post office. 2.Using the criterion of ability to see, assess the evidence that David is the culprit. 3.What vested interest might David or any of the others involved have in presenting false or insecure evidence? 4.To what extent can the criterion of expertise be used to support the claims of any of those involved? 5.To what extent can the deputy head be regarded as a neutral source of evidence? 6.Without repeating point already made, examine aspects of the circumstances of the case that could suggest that David is guilty, and others that might suggest that he is not guilty. Head Boy Accused of Theft

41 Is something boring because of it Or because of you?

42 Credibility of Evidence Can we apply the criteria? Objectives To apply the criteria to multiple evidence to assess its credibility To make judgements on the evidence To start to come to conclusions based on the evidence

43 If this is the correct answer, what is the question? The tops of the mountains 47 Because light travels faster She could have said so much more

44 Table for assessing Multiple Evidence Evidence Letter Criterion applied Effect on credibility Corroboration with….

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46 Table for assessing Multiple Evidence Fran Lee Evidence Letter Criterion applied Effect on credibility Corroboration with…. F P N M D

47 Reviewing the tables of evidence Who hit Fran Lee? What criterion could be applied to the evidence of: P – The police officer D – The Dutch tourist Which witness is the most credible and why?

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49 Table for assessing Multiple Evidence Two Dogs Fighting Evidence Letter Criterion applied Effect on credibility Corroboration with…. A B C D J

50 In your groups look through Paper One and formulate one question you would like to ask

51 Reflection Think back over the day Note down Two new things your neighbour has learnt today


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