Presentation on theme: "Unit F501: Introduction to Critical Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit F501: Introduction to Critical Thinking The language of reasoning CredibilityUnit F502: Assessing and Developing Argument Analysis of argument Evaluating arguments Developing one’s own reasoned argumentsIntroduction dayMorningUnit Two what is an argumentIntroWhat is an argumentGirl V dadHow to deconstruct an argumentLook through paper two & questionAfternoonUnit OneCredibility criteriaApplicationHead boyFran leeDogs fightingLook through paper one
2Unit F502: Assessing and Developing Argument Analysis of argument Evaluating arguments Developing one’s own reasoned arguments
3If you were an ANIMAL what ANIMAL would you be? Why?
4Morning Session Introduction Unit 2 What is an Argument? Daughter & FatherDeconstruct an Argument -key terms and examplesLook at exam paper
5Arguments Critical Thinking Analyse Evaluate Present Critical Thinking students develop the skills that allow them toAnalyseEvaluatePresentArguments
6Critical Thinking Analyse – To identify the structure of an argument What is the Conclusion ?What are the Reasons to support this ?
7What is an ‘Argument’? Objectives To understand what is meant by the term ‘argument’To start to be able to identify the components of an argument
8What is an ‘Argument’? A Starter Think back to the last argument you hadWith a partner shareWhat was it aboutWho was it withWhat were you aiming to achieveAn argument is – An attempt to persuade someone of something
9How can we spot an ‘Argument’? Look at the examples below, which are ‘arguments’ ( attempts to persuade)I like cheeseMy mum makes the best cakes, she was taught by my GranMan U suckI want that shirt because it is cheapI hate TV soaps because they are boringWhere is the cathedral?Using these examples can we define what makes something an argument?Must have statement and reason /evidence
10An ‘Argument’ you may have had! Look at the argument between the father and daughterIs this discussion an argument or simply a row?What is the father trying to persuade his daughter, can you find three reasons he gives in support of this?What is the daughter trying to persuade her father, can you find three reasons he gives in support of this?Who do you think has the stronger argument?V
11What is an ‘Argument’?A PlenaryWhat advice would you give the daughter in order to strengthen her argument (attempt to persuade)
12Call out the letters of the Alphabet and complete the Actions A Touch Nose with Left HandHO Draw the letter O in the AirV Clap Hands TogetherBIPWC Touch Left Ear with Left HandJ Draw the Letter J in the airQ Touch both EarsX Make an X Sign with both HandsD Left Thumbs downK Right hand in the AirR Touch both Ears with Opposite HandsY Touch both EarsE Right Thumbs UpL Both Hands in the AirS Left Hand in the AirZ Thumbs Up Sigh with both HandsFMTGNU
13How to deconstruct an ‘Argument’? At its simplest an argument consists of a reason and a conclusionKey TermsArgument – The presentation of one or more reasons to support a conclusionConclusion – A claim that is supported by one or more reasonsReason – A claim which supports a conclusionArgument Indicator – A word or phase that provides a link between a reason and a conclusionObjectivesTo be able to identify a conclusion in an argumentTo be able to identify the reasons given in support
14How to deconstruct an ‘Argument’? A StarterTrue or falseThe person with the best reasons/evidence will always ‘win’ the argumentIn pairs discuss whether you believe this statement to be true or false and be ready to feedback your beliefs.
15Conclusions/ReasonsSmoking isn’t illegal. Millions of people get huge pleasure from it. Therefore smokers should not be made to feel that they are committing a crime whenever they light up.Reasons – Smoking isn’t illegal\Millions of people get pleasure from itConclusion – Therefore Smokers should not be made to feel they are committing a crime…..
16Conclusion Indicators Conclusions can often be identified by conclusion indicatorsThese are words or phases which indicate a conclusion is being givenConclusion IndicatorsTherefore It follows (that)Thus Shows (that)So Proves (that)Hence Indicates (that)Consequently Demonstrates (that)In conclusion For these reasons we see (that)We conclude (that) Must , need toAs a result Ought to should
17Conclusions/ReasonsThere has been an increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke. Teenage girls tend to buy those brands that are most frequently advertised. It must be advertising that has caused this increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke.Reasons – There has been an increase in the number of teenage girls who smoke/Teenage girls buy those brands that are most frequently advertised.Conclusion – Therefore it must be advertising that has caused the increase in teenage girls who smoke…..
18Conclusions/ReasonsSome of the Antarctic ice-caps are melting. This must be an indication of global warming. If the ice-caps continue to melt, sea levels will rise resulting in catastrophic flooding of many of our coastal areas. We should take action now to reduce the causes of global warmingReasons – Ice caps are melting – this is an indication of global warming – if ice caps melt=floods=catastropheConclusion – Therefore we should take action to reduce the causes of global warming
22How to deconstruct an ‘Argument’? In pairs work through the examples highlight the conclusion and then the reasonsHow to deconstruct an ‘Argument’?A PlenaryWrite your own short argument, with a conclusion and two reasons in support for your partner to deconstruct.
23In your groups look through Paper Two and formulate one question you would like to ask
24Unit F501: Introduction to Critical Thinking The language of reasoning Credibility
25Which is more important? Being Right or Being Polite
26Afternoon Session Unit One What is Credibility Criteria Examples- Head boyFran leeDogsLook at Exam Paper
27Credibility of Evidence What criteria do we use toevaluate credibility?ObjectivesTo understand the different Credibility criteria available’To apply these criteria to evidence to assess its credibility
29CRAVENCRAVEN - the acrostic for the criteria that can be applied when assessing evidence.Some evidence may be measured using just one ‘criterion’ from the CRAVEN criteria. Some may be examined using more than one depending on the source of the evidence.
30C R A V E N CRAVEN Circumstantial or context Reputation Ability to see or perceiveVVested InterestEExpertiseNNeutrality
31Critical Thinking Credibility of Evidence 1 Criteria to use (Criterion singular)Reputation-Does the source have a reputation for reliability, e.g. the difference between The Sun and the BBCAbility to observe-Could the source see what it claims has happenedVested Interest-Does the source have a reason to be biased e.g. someone accused of war crimes who denies any responsibilityNeutrality-Opposite of Vested Interest, does the source have a neutral outlook on the claimExpertise/Training-Does the source have relevant training or expertise that would support their claim, e.g. a Doctor giving a medical opinion
32Critical Thinking Credibility of Evidence 2 Criteria to use (Criterion singular)Nature of the claim-Is the claim itself credible, or very unlikely, e.g. when someone claims to have witnessed a miracleCredible reasons for the claim-Can the source support their claim with credible reasons, or is it not supportedCorroboration-Is there corroboration of the claim from independent sources, e.g. it is backed up elsewhereYou need to be able to use the Criteria in deciding which sources and authorities are credible/reliable and on what grounds
33Using Credibility Criteria When assessing the credibility of a source you should usewhatever criteria you think is relevant, and often will use atleast two.EG – An Eye Witness Report Emphasis on the high credibility of direct observationBut alsoVested Interest – Did the eyewitness have anything to gain by including or excluding evidenceBias – Did the eyewitness observe a friend and try to present them in the best light?Expertise – Did the eyewitness have any relevant expertise which may increase the credibility of the evidenceReputation – Has the eyewitness got a reputation for honesty or dishonestyCorroboration – Is the evidence given by the eyewitness supported by other sources of evidenceSelectivity – Did the eyewitness see only part of the event?Context – Did the context allow for a clear view of the event?Here we can see combining different criteria improves ourassessment of credibility of evidence
34Key Terms Argument – A reason or reasons that support a conclusion Evidence – Information used to support an argumentSource – Where evidence comes from e.g. eye witnessCredibility – Believability, a cr4edable source is a believable sourceCredibility Criteria – criteria used to assess the credibility of sourcesand evidenceNeutrality – Impartial, not taking sidesVested Interest – Having something to gain from a particular outcomeBias – Favouring a particular viewExpertise – Specialist knowledgeReputation – What is generally thought about a person’s character orStandingObservation – Direct observation of an event by an eyewitnessEye witness account – A report by someone who has personally observedan eventCorroboration – Confirming, giving support to, Corroborative evidence isevidence that supports each other, point in the same direction.Selectivity – The choice of evidence to support an argumentContext – The setting or situation in which evidence is producedTruth – Something that is accurate or correct
38Credibility of Evidence Was the Head Boy guilty?ObjectivesTo revisit the credibility criteria availableTo continue to apply the criteria to worked examplesTo come to a conclusion to if the Head Boy is guilty!
39Head Boy Accused of Theft Read the passage ‘Head Boy Accused of Theft’ and answer the questions that follow.
40Head Boy Accused of Theft Questions:Using the criterion of reputation, discuss whether it seems likely that David stole the chocolates from the post office.Using the criterion of ability to see, assess the evidence that David is the culprit.What vested interest might David or any of the others involved have in presenting false or insecure evidence?To what extent can the criterion of expertise be used to support the claims of any of those involved?To what extent can the deputy head be regarded as a neutral source of evidence?Without repeating point already made, examine aspects of the circumstances of the case that could suggest that David is guilty, and others that might suggest that he is not guilty.
41Is something boring because of it because of you?
42Credibility of Evidence Can we apply the criteria? ObjectivesTo apply the criteria to multiple evidence to assess its credibilityTo make judgements on the evidenceTo start to come to conclusions based on the evidence
43If this is the correct answer, what is the question? The tops of the mountains47Because light travels fasterShe could have said so much more
44Table for assessing Multiple Evidence Evidence LetterCriterion appliedEffect on credibilityCorroboration with….