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Atkinson and Shiffrin – Multi store Model of Memory 1960’s Memory storage in three separate but interacting systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Atkinson and Shiffrin – Multi store Model of Memory 1960’s Memory storage in three separate but interacting systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atkinson and Shiffrin – Multi store Model of Memory 1960’s Memory storage in three separate but interacting systems

2 Sensory Register Short term Memory Store Long term Memory Store External Stimulus Forgetting Attention Storage Response Internal Stimulus Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

3 Sensory Register  Refers to information detected by the sensory receptors which is retained temporarily in the sensory register  Only able to momentarily hold accurate images  Images are held long enough for relevant details to be attended to and transferred to STM  Info that isn’t attended to – the memory trace decays & disappears  Function – to briefly hold sensory information

4 There is a possibility that information may bypass the Short –Term Store & go directly to the Long-Term Store, but Atkinson & Shiffrin didn't explain how or why this may occur.

5 Structural Features (of Atkinson Shiffrin Model) Permanent, built in, fixed features of memory -3 different memory stores -Storage capacity of each store -Function of each store -Duration each can hold information  Likened to the hard drive of the computer

6 Control Processes (of Atkinson Shiffrin Model) Conscious control by the individual -Attention to incoming info -Rehearsal of information -Retrieval Strategy used  Likened to the person using the computer

7 Limitations of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model  Refer to Pgs 294-5 of your text.  What are the three main limitations of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model? Give a example or how each is now believed to be different.

8 Divisions of Sensory Memory Iconic  Visual  Briefly held 0.3sec  Very large capacity  No additional processing  Limited by individuals field of vision Echoic  Auditory  Briefly held 3-4sec  Very large capacity  No additional processing  Limited by individuals range of hearing  What? When watching TV processing delay

9 Loss of Sensory Information  Caused by both interference and decay  Is faster when stimulus is quickly followed by another  Information not passed to STM To store information in STM  We must focus our attention on a stimulus or mental event, thereby shutting out competing stimuli

10 Attention Sensory Register Short-term Memory Selective Attention filters information to pass into STM for processing Input Information that is not attended to is lost (Pseudoforgetting)

11 Short Term Memory Also known as Working Memory Allows you to manipulate information contained in the Sensory or LTM Very susceptible to interruption or interference Small amounts of information can be processed

12 Short-term Memory Capacityapprox. 7+ 2 bits of info (Miller 1956) This can be expanded by “chunking” info into larger units DurationApprox. 18 – 20 sec (Peterson et al, 1959) See p304 for explanation. ProcessingTo hold info in STM, often encoded verbally, other strategies, such as visualisation, may be used, making it possible to “rehearse’ the info.

13 Digit-span test  A measure of attention and short-term memory which tests the recall of a series of digits  7 + 2 chunks

14 Rehearsal  Is a process that enables info to be held in STM for a long period of time  Info can be copied from STM to LTM during rehearsal  2 types 1.Maintenance rehearsal  Is the overt or covert repetition of information  Fine for retaining info in STM but will not always lead to LTM 2.Elaboration rehearsal  Info is actively analysed for its physical, sensory or semantic (meaning features

15 Rehearsal Input Information that is displaced through distraction is lost Rehearsal is required to process information in STM

16  Remember the number 0011441523329197

17 Chunking  One way to increase the storage capacity of STM  Grouping of single units of info into higher order units

18 Consolidation Theory  Information is gradually and only under certain circumstances transferred from STM to LTM  This takes place after rehearsal  Physical changes to the neurons in the brain

19 Consolidation Theory cont’  Hebb (1949)  Assumes that processing continues after rehearsal and ends if interrupted and the memory trace will be lost  Information being remembered is vulnerable for about 30 minutes  If processing interrupted then consolidation does not occur  if consolidation is prevented, the material can never be recalled

20 Processing Information into Long-Term Memory

21 Encoding Sensory Register Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Input Information that is not encoded properly is lost Successful encoding transfers information into LTM Retrieval of information enhances elaboration

22 Consolidation Sensory Register Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Input If consolidation is disrupted, Information can be lost Memory stabilises (consolidates) over time

23 Baddeley & Hitch(1974)  STM provides temporary storage for the manipulation of the information necessary for complex tasks  Language comprehension  Learning  Reasoning  Problem solving  Information can come from Sensory Memory or LTM  Divided into 3 sub-components

24 Sensory Register Iconic Memory Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad Echoic Memory Phonological Loop Long-Term Memory Central Executive

25 Central Executive  Most important. “Executive supervisor”  Very active  Responsible for selection, initiation and termination of processing  Multi-tasking  Integrates information from the other 2 subsystems with information retrieved from LTM

26 Visuospatial Sketchpad  Temporary storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information

27 Phonological Loop (articulatory loop)  Responsible for storing sound / speech based info  Stores a limited number of sounds for a limited period of time

28 Episodic Buffer  In 2000, Baddeley decided that the model didn’t explain how working memory linked with LTM  He added a fourth component - Episodic Buffer  This is assumed to be a limited capacity system that enables the different components of working memory to interact with the LTM and holds info: -Temporarily -In any form -About 4 chunks

29 Episodic Buffer  Baddeley (2000) Central Executive Episodic Buffer Visuo- Spatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Visual Episodic Language Semantics LTM

30  Refer to Pg 319 of your text  What do the words “episodic” & “buffer” refer to?

31 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework  Craig & Lockhart argued against the theories that centred around memory having different storage systems that memories flow through  Their theory stresses the depth or level that new information is processed at.

32 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’  C & L believed that the way we process information will impact our LTM of that information  Semantic Encoding: The information is process according to meaning.  There is a continuum of encoding:  Shallow: Info retained only briefly  Deeper: Info retained longer

33 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’  Shallow Processing: Viewing the stimulus in a superficial way / looking at only superficial visual details.  Eg Remembering words. Does it have an ‘i’ in it?

34 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’  Medium Processing: Attending to the acoustic details of the word. Saying it out aloud.  Eg What does the word rhyme with?

35 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’  Deep Processing: Attending to the personal meaning of the word. Does it apply to you?  Eg Does the word describe me?

36 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’  (Insert pic of graph of levels of processing)

37 Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ Criticism of the Craig & Lockhart Theory -Level or depth is difficult to measure

38 Look at this picture for 30 seconds

39  1. What is the colour of the girls dress?  2. Where are the girls arms?  3. Is the cat looking to it’s right or it’s left?  4. How may red flower ‘spikes’ are there?  5. What is the colour of the girls hair?  6. How many stripes are there on the bottom of the girls dress?

40 Eidetic Memory Also known as “photographic memory”. Ability to recall an exact visual image that persists over time – days / weeks. Happens most in childhood, less as teenagers, rarely as adults.

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