Presentation on theme: "Atkinson and Shiffrin – Multi store Model of Memory"— Presentation transcript:
1Atkinson and Shiffrin – Multi store Model of Memory Memory storage in three separate but interacting systems
2Sensory Register Short term Memory Store Long term External StimulusForgettingAttentionStorageResponseInternal StimulusRetrievalMaintenance RehearsalLoss of sensory info. Caused by both interference and decayLoss of info. Is faster when stimulus is quickly followed by anotherInfo not passed to STM is gone foreverWe must focus our attention on a stimulus or mental event, thereby shutting out competing stimuli, in order to select what info. Will be processed within our STM
3Sensory RegisterRefers to information detected by the sensory receptors which is retained temporarily in the sensory registerOnly able to momentarily hold accurate imagesImages are held long enough for relevant details to be attended to and transferred to STMInfo that isn’t attended to – the memory trace decays & disappearsFunction – to briefly hold sensory information
4There is a possibility that information may bypass the Short –Term Store & go directly to the Long-Term Store, but Atkinson & Shiffrin didn't explain how or why this may occur.
5Structural Features (of Atkinson Shiffrin Model) Permanent, built in, fixed features of memory3 different memory storesStorage capacity of each storeFunction of each storeDuration each can hold informationLikened to the hard drive of the computer
6Control Processes (of Atkinson Shiffrin Model) Conscious control by the individualAttention to incoming infoRehearsal of informationRetrieval Strategy usedLikened to the person using the computer
7Limitations of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model Refer to Pgs of your text.What are the three main limitations of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model? Give a example or how each is now believed to be different.
8Divisions of Sensory Memory IconicVisualBriefly held 0.3secVery large capacityNo additional processingLimited by individuals field of visionEchoicAuditoryBriefly held3-4secVery large capacityNo additional processingLimited by individuals range of hearingWhat? When watching TV processing delay
9Loss of Sensory Information Caused by both interference and decayIs faster when stimulus is quickly followed by anotherInformation not passed to STMTo store information in STMWe must focus our attention on a stimulus or mental event, thereby shutting out competing stimuli
10AttentionInputInformation that is not attended to is lost (Pseudoforgetting)Selective Attention filters information to pass into STM for processing
11Short Term Memory Also known as Working Memory Allows you to manipulate information contained in the Sensory or LTMVery susceptible to interruption or interferenceSmall amounts of information can be processed
12Short-term Memory Capacity approx. 7+ 2 bits of info (Miller 1956) This can be expanded by “chunking” info into larger unitsDurationApprox. 18 – 20 sec (Peterson et al, 1959)See p304 for explanation.ProcessingTo hold info in STM, often encoded verbally, other strategies, such as visualisation, may be used, making it possible to “rehearse’ the info.CapacityLimited Duration Processing
13Digit-span testA measure of attention and short-term memory which tests the recall of a series of digitschunks
14RehearsalIs a process that enables info to be held in STM for a long period of timeInfo can be copied from STM to LTM during rehearsal2 typesMaintenance rehearsalIs the overt or covert repetition of informationFine for retaining info in STM but will not always lead to LTMElaboration rehearsalInfo is actively analysed for its physical, sensory or semantic (meaning features
15RehearsalInputInformation that is displaced through distraction is lostRehearsal is required to process information in STM
17Chunking One way to increase the storage capacity of STM Grouping of single units of info into higher order units
18Consolidation TheoryInformation is gradually and only under certain circumstances transferred from STM to LTMThis takes place after rehearsalPhysical changes to the neurons in the brain
19Consolidation Theory cont’ Hebb (1949)Assumes that processing continues after rehearsal and ends if interrupted and the memory trace will be lostInformation being remembered is vulnerable for about 30 minutesIf processing interrupted then consolidation does not occurif consolidation is prevented, the material can never be recalled
21Encoding Input Information that is not encoded properly is lost Successful encoding transfers information into LTMRetrieval of information enhances elaboration
22InputConsolidationIf consolidation is disrupted, Information can be lostMemory stabilises (consolidates) over time
23Baddeley & Hitch(1974)STM provides temporary storage for the manipulation of the information necessary for complex tasksLanguage comprehensionLearningReasoningProblem solvingInformation can come from Sensory Memory or LTMDivided into 3 sub-components
25Central Executive Most important . “Executive supervisor” Very active Responsible for selection, initiation and termination of processingMulti-taskingIntegrates information from the other 2 subsystems with information retrieved from LTM
26Visuospatial Sketchpad Temporary storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information
27Phonological Loop (articulatory loop) Responsible for storing sound / speech based infoStores a limited number of sounds for a limited period of time
28Episodic BufferIn 2000, Baddeley decided that the model didn’t explain how working memory linked with LTMHe added a fourth component - Episodic BufferThis is assumed to be a limited capacity system that enables the different components of working memory to interact with the LTM and holds info:TemporarilyIn any formAbout 4 chunks
29Episodic Buffer Baddeley (2000) Visual Episodic Language Semantics LTM Central ExecutiveVisuo-SpatialSketchpadEpisodic BufferPhonological LoopVisual Episodic LanguageSemantics LTM
30Refer to Pg 319 of your textWhat do the words “episodic” & “buffer” refer to?
31Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework Craig & Lockhart argued against the theories that centred around memory having different storage systems that memories flow throughTheir theory stresses the depth or level that new information is processed at.
32Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ C & L believed that the way we process information will impact our LTM of that informationSemantic Encoding: The information is process according to meaning.There is a continuum of encoding:Shallow: Info retained only brieflyDeeper: Info retained longer
33Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ Shallow Processing: Viewing the stimulus in a superficial way / looking at only superficial visual details.Eg Remembering words. Does it have an ‘i’ in it?
34Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ Medium Processing: Attending to the acoustic details of the word. Saying it out aloud.Eg What does the word rhyme with?
35Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ Deep Processing: Attending to the personal meaning of the word. Does it apply to you?Eg Does the word describe me?
36Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ (Insert pic of graph of levels of processing)
37Craik & Lockhart’s “Levels of Processing” Framework cont’ Criticism of the Craig & Lockhart TheoryLevel or depth is difficult to measure
38Look at this picture for 30 seconds Photographic Memory – AKA eidetic memory
391. What is the colour of the girls dress? 2. Where are the girls arms?3. Is the cat looking to it’s right or it’s left?4. How may red flower ‘spikes’ are there?5. What is the colour of the girls hair?6. How many stripes are there on the bottom of the girls dress?
40Eidetic Memory Also known as “photographic memory”. Ability to recall an exact visual image that persists over time – days / weeks.Happens most in childhood, less as teenagers, rarely as adults.