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Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Cognition Working Memory Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Cognition Working Memory Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Cognition Working Memory Chapter 4

2 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Introduction working memory short-term memory long-term memory

3 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Classic Research on Working Memory George Miller's "Magical Number Seven" suggested that people can remember about seven items (give or take two) chunk as memory unit proposed that people engage in internal mental processes in order to convert stimuli into a manageable number of chunks

4 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Classic Research on Working Memory Other Early Research on Short-Term- Memory Capacity The Brown/Peterson & Peterson Technique material held in memory for less than a minute is frequently forgotten remember three items; count backwards by threes rehearsal

5 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Brown/Peterson & Peterson—Typical Results

6 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Classic Research on Working Memory Other Early Research on Short-Term- Memory Capacity The Recency Effect serial position effect recency effect primacy effect used to measure the size of short-term memory

7 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Serial Position Effect

8 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Classic Research on Working Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin's Model control processes Other Factors Affecting Working Memory's Capacity Pronunciation Time short names vs. long names numbers in different languages acoustic properties of stimuli

9 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Pronunciation Rate & Memory Span

10 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Classic Research on Working Memory Other Factors Affecting Working Memory's Capacity Other Factors Affecting Working Memory's Capacity (continued) Semantic Similarity of the Items in Working Memory semantics Wickens and colleagues (1976) proactive interference (PI) release from proactive interference Brown/Peterson & Peterson task varying semantic similarity on Trial 4

11 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Release from Proactive Interference

12 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Alan Baddeley & Graham Hitch (1974); Baddeley (2000, 2001, 2006) What does short-term memory accomplish for our cognitive processes?

13 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory

14 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach working-memory approach—our immediate memory is a multipart system that temporarily holds and manipulates information as we perform cognitive tasks central executive visuospatial sketchpad episodic buffer phonological loop emphasis on active manipulation of information in working memory

15 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Evidence for Components with Independent Capacities Working memory is not unitary Baddeley & Hitch (1974) random numbers and spatial reasoning task

16 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach In Depth: Phonological Loop phonological loop—processes a limited number of sounds for a short period of time subvocalization

17 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach In Depth: Phonological Loop Research on Acoustic Confusions acoustic confusions Similar sounding items are more difficult to recall B D P T V C K M F Q Z L Conrad & Hull (1964) list of letters, presented visually lists of words

18 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach In Depth: Phonological Loop Other Uses for the Phonological Loop counting reading acquiring new vocabulary learning foreign language mathematical calculations problem-solving tasks complex task instructions

19 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Neuroscience Research on the Phonological Loop

20 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Visuospatial Sketchpad visuospatial sketchpad—processes both visual and spatial information store appearance and relative position store visual information encoded from verbal stimuli limited capacity

21 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Visuospatial Sketchpad Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad performing two visuospatial tasks simultaneously no standardized set of visual stimuli tendency to provide names for visual stimuli, thus using phonological loop instead Brandimonte and colleagues (1992)—say "la la la" while looking at complex visual stimulus

22 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Visuospatial Sketchpad Other Uses for the Visuospatial Sketchpad engineering art architecture retaining image of a scene finding your way from one location to another videogames, jigsaw puzzles, mazes television

23 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Neuroscience Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad Parietal and frontal areas are active during mental rotation

24 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Central Executive central executive—integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer and from long-term memory Characteristics of the Central Executive plans and coordinates, but does not store information executive supervisor decides which issues deserve attention selects a strategy limited capacity to perform simultaneous tasks

25 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Central Executive The Central Executive and Daydreaming Teasdale and colleagues (1995) random-number generation task report thoughts Neuroscience Research on the Central Executive frontal lobe

26 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Episodic Buffer episodic buffer—temporary storehouse where we can gather and combine information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory integrates information from different modalities limited temporary

27 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Individual Differences: Major Depression and Working Memory Working memory performance is related to: overall intelligence and grades in school verbal fluency, reading comprehension, reasoning ability, note-taking skills reading ability Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

28 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4 The Working-Memory Approach Individual Differences: Major Depression and Working Memory Major depression Christopher and MacDonald (2005) phonological loop visuospatial sketchpad central executive difficulty concentrating unwanted negative thoughts

29 Alterations in the Functional Anatomy of Working Memory in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Data suggest the use of compensatory mental and neural strategies by subjects with ADHD in response to a disrupted ability to inhibit attention to nonrelevant stimuli and the use of internalized speech to guide behavior. &journalID=13 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 4


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